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DATABASE:

Disturbance Ecology Literature Database

Compiled by Paul Rogers, ecologist for the Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation Program at the Intermountain (now Rocky Mountain) Research Station for the Intermountain Center for Research on Disturbance Ecology, Logan, Utah.

A subset and review of this database was published by the Intermountain Research Station: Rogers, P., Disturbance Ecology and Forest Management: a Review of the Literature, USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General Technical Report INT-GTR-336, May 1996.

Abrams, M.D., D.A. Orwig, and T.E. Demeo. 1995. Dendroecological analysis of successional dynamics for presettlement-origin white pine mixed oak forest in the southern Appalachians. Journal of Ecology 83:123-133.

Aguilera, M.O., and W.K. Laurenroth. 1995. Influence of gap disturbances and type of microsites on seedling establishment in Bouteloua gracilis. Journal of Ecology 83:87-97.

Allison, S.K. 1995. Recovery from small-scale anthropogenic disturbances by northern California salt marsh plant assemblages. Ecological Applications 5:693-702.

---. 1996. Recruitment and establishment of salt marsh plants following disturbance by flooding. American midland naturalist 136:232-247.

Amman, G.D. 1978. The Role of the mountain Pine Beetle in Lodgepole Pine Ecosystems: Impact of Succession. Pages 3-18 in W. J. Mattson, editor. The Role of Arthropods in Forest Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y. (N)

Amman, G.D., and K.C. Ryan. 1991. Insect Infestation of Fire-Injured Trees in the Greater Yellowstone Area. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Research Note INT-398.

Anderson, N.J. 1995. Using the past to predict the future: lake sediments and the modelling of limnological disturbance. Ecological modelling 78:149-172.

Arno, S.F., J.H. Scott, and M.G. Hartwell. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas Fir stands and its relationship to fire history. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Research Paper RP-481.

Arno, S.F., H.Y. Smith, and M.A. Krebs. 1997. Old growth ponderosa Pine and western larch stand structures: influences of pre-1900 fires and fire exclusion. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Research Paper INT RP-495.

Arno, S.F. 1980. Forest Fire History in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry 78(8):460-465.

Arno, S.F., E.D. Reinhardt, and J.H. Scott. 1993. Forest Structure and Landscape Patterns in the Subalpine Lodgepole Pine Type: A Procedure for Quantifying Past and Present Conditions. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Tec hnical Report INT-294.

Arno, S.F., and K.M. Sneck. 1977. A Method for Determining Fire History in Coniferous Forests of the Mountain West. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest And Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-42.

Attiwill, P.M. 1994. Ecological Disturbance and the Conservative Management of Eucalypt Forests in Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 63:301-346.

---. 1994. The disturbance of forest ecosystems: the ecological basis for conservative management. Forest Ecology and Management 63:247-300.

Averill, R.D., L. Larson, J. Saveland, P. Wargo, J. Williams, and M. Bellinger. 1994. Disturbance Processes and Ecosystem Management: Executive Summary. USDA Forest Service, unpublished document, 33p.

Baker, F.A. 1988. The Influence of Forest Management on Pathogens. The Northwest Environmental Journal 4:229-246.

Baker, M.B. 1995. Soil loss in pinon-juniper ecosystems and its influence on site productivity and desired future condition. Desired future conditions for pinon-juniper ecosystems: August 8-12, 1994, Flagstaf, Arizona. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mount ain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report RM-258.

Baker, W.L. 1995. Longterm response of disturbance landscapes to human intervention and global change. Landscape Ecology 10:143-159.

---. 1992. The Landscape Ecology of Large Disturbances in the Design and Management of Nature Reserves. Landscape Ecology 7(3):181-194.

---. 1992. Effects of Settlement and Fire Suppression on Landscape Structure. Ecology 73(5):1879-1887.

Baker, W.L., and T.T. Veblen. 1990. Spruce Beetles and Fires in the Nineteenth-Century Subalpine Forests of Western Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research 22(1):65-80.

Bancroft, G.T., A.M. Strong, and M. Carrington. 1995. Deforestation and its effects on forest-nesting birds in the Florida keys. Conservation Biology 9:835-844.

Barrett, S.W., and S.F. Arno. 1988. Increment-Borer Methods for Determining Fire History in Coniferous Forests. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Techincal Report INT-244.

Battles, J.J., and T.J. Fahey. 1996. Spruce decline as a disturbance event in the subapline forests of the northeastern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:408-421.

Beatty, J.S., J.E. Lundquist, and B.W. Geils. 1995. Disturbance and canopy gaps as indicators of forest health in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Forest health through silviculture: proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop, Mescalero, New Mexico, May 8-11, 1995. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. General Technical Report, RM GTR-267.

Bellingham, P.J., E.V.J. Tanner, and J.R. Healey. 1995. Damage and responsiveness of Jamaican montane tree species after disturbance. Ecology 76:2562-2580.

Bergeron, Y., and Pierre-R. Dansereau. 1993. Predicting the Composition of Canadian Southern Boreal Forest in Different fires Cycles. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:827-832.

Boman, J.S. 1995. Differential postdispersal seed predation in disturbed and intact temperal forest. American midland naturalist 134:107-116.

Bormann, B.T. 1995. Rapid soil development after windthrow disturbance in pristine forests. Journal of Ecology 83:747-757.

Bormann, F.H. 1985. Air Pollution and Forests: An Ecosystem Perspective. BioScience 35:434-441.

Bormann, F.H., and G.E. Likens. 1979. Catastrophic Disturbance and the Steady State in Northern Hardwood Forests. American Scientist 67:660-669.

Bourque, C. 1995. Changes in albedo of a northern hardwood forest following clearcutting. Forest Science 41:268-277.

Bradley, A.F., N.V. Noste, and W.C. Fischer. 1992. Fire Ecology of Forests and Woodlands in Utah.

Bradshaw, R., and G. Hannon. 1992. Climate Change, Human Influence and Disturbance Regime in the Control of Vegetation Dynamics Within Fiby Forest, Sweden. Journal of Ecology 80:625-632.

Brooks, M.H., S. Campbell, and L. Liegel. 1996. Disturbance and forest health in Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report PNW GTR-381.

Brown, P.M., and W.D. Sheppard. 1995. Engelmann Spruce tree-ring chronologies from Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado: potential for a long-term temperature reconstruction in the central Rocky Mountains. Interior West Global Change Workshop: April 25-27, 1995, Fort Collins, Colorado. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report RM GTR-262.

Brown, R.W. 1995. Principles of High Elevation Ecosystem Restoration and Revegetation. In Press, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah.

Brown, R.W., M.C. Amacher, and J. Kotuby-Amacher. 1995. Summary of Revegetation Reseach on the McLaren and Glengary Mines by the USDA-Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. In Press, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden , Utah, 13p.

Busing, R.T. 1995. Disturbance and the population dynamics of Liriodendron tulipfera: simulations with a spatial model of forest succession. Journal of Ecology 83:45-53.

Busing, R.T., and P.S. White. 1993. Effects of Area on Old-growth Forest Attributes: Implications for the Equilibrium Landscape Concept. Landscape Ecology 8(2):119-126.

Byler, J. 1995. Forest pathology and disturbance ecology: is there a role for forest pathologists? Proceedings of the forth-third annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, Big Mountain Resort, Whitefish, Montana, August 29-Septembe r 1, 1995.

Byler, J.W. 1997. Successional functions of pathogens, insects and fire in intermountain forests: general discussion and a case history from northern Idaho white pine forests. Diverse forests, abundant opportunities and evolving realities; proceeding s of the 1996 Society of American Foresters convention, Albuquerque, November 9-13, 1996, Bethesda, MD.

Callaway, R.M., and F.W. Davis. 1993. Vegetation Dynamics, Fire, and the Physical Environment in Coastal Central California. Ecology 74(5):1567-1578.

Camp, A.E., and R.L. Everett. 1997. Fire, insects and pathogens: managing risk in late-successional reserves. Diverse forests, abundant opportunities and evolving realities: proceedings of the 1996 Society of American Foresters convention, Albuquerqu e, NM, November 9-13, 1996, Bethesda, MD.

Camp, A. 1995. Spatial changes in forest landscape patterns from altered disturbance regimes on the eastern slope of the Washington Cascades. Proceedings: Symposium on Fire in Wilderness and Park Management: Missoula, MT, March 30-April 1, 1993. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT GTR-320.

Camp, A., C. Oliver, P. Hessburg, and R. Everett. 1997. Predicting late-successional fire refugia pre-dating European settlement in the Wenatchee Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 95:63-77.

Canham, C.D., J.S. Denslow, W.J. Platt, J.R. Runkle, T.R. Spies, and P.S. White. 1990. Light Regimes Beneath Closed Canopies and Tree-fall Gaps in Temperate and Tropical Forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:620-631.

Carlson, C.E. 1995. Forest development leading to disturbances. Forest health through silviculture: proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop, Mescalero, New Mexico, May 8-11, 1995. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Ex periment Station, Fort Collins, CO. General Technical Report, RM GTR-267.

Carrara, P.E. 1979. The Determination of Snow Avalanche Frequency Through Tree-ring Analysis and Historical Records at Ophir, Colorado. Geological Society of American Bulletin Part I, v.90:773-780.

Castello, J.D., D.J. Leopold, and P.J. Smallidge. 1995. Pathogens, Patterns, and Processes in Forest Ecosystems. BioScience 45(1):16-24.

Chambers, J.C. 1995. Disturbance, life history strategies, and seed fates in alpine herbfield communities. American journal of botany 82:421-433.

Chambers, J.C., and G.L.eds Wade. 1992. Evaluating Reclamation Success: The Ecological Consideration. Proceedings from the annual meeting of the American Society of Surface Mining and Reclamation, April 23-26, 1990, Charlston, West Virginia, USDA For est Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-164.

Cherubini, P., P. Piussi, and F.H. Schweingruber. 1996. Spatiotemporal growth dynamics and disturbances in a subalpine spruce forest in the Alps: a dendroecological reconstruction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:991-1001.

Clark, J.S. 1996. Testing disturbance theory with long-term data: alternative life-history solutions to the distribution of events. The American Naturalist 148:976-996.

---. 1989. Ecological Disturbance as a Renewal Process: Theory and Application to Fire History. oikos 56:17-30.

---. 1991. Disturbance and Tree Life History on the Shifting Mosaic Landscape. Ecology 72(3):1102-1118.

Collins, S.L., S.M. Glenn, and D.J. Gibson. 486-492. Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76:486-492.

Conner, J.L., and R.T. Holmes. 1995. Neotropical migrants in undisturbed and human-altered forests of Jamaica. Wilson Bulletin 107:577-589.

Cook, E.R., and L.A. Kairiukstis, editors. 1990. Methods of Dendrochronology: Applications in the Environmental Sciences. Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.

Cook, J.E. 1996. Implications of modern successional theory for habitat typing. Forest Science 42:67-75.

Coulson, R.N., J.W. Fitzgerald, M.C. Saunders, and F.L. Oliveria. 1992. Spatial Analysis and Integrated Pest Management in a Landscape Ecological Context. In: Spatial Analysis and Forest Pest Management, proceedings, Liebhold, A.M. and Barrett, H.R. (eds.), April 27-30, Mountain Lakes, Virginia, USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Techical Report NE-175.

Covington, W.W., and M.M. Moore. 1992. Postsettlement Changes in Natural Fire Regimes: Implications for Restoration of Old-Growth Ponderosa Pine Forests. Old-Growth Forests in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain Regions Proceedings of a Workshop, March 9-13, 1992, Portal, Arizona, USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-213.

---. 1994. Southwestern Ponderosa Forest Structure: Changes Since Euro-American Settlement. Journal of Forestry 92:39-47.

Czapowskyj, M.M. 1976. Annotated Bibliography on the Ecology and Reclamation of Drastically Disturbed Areas. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-21.

DeAngelis, D.L., and J.C. Waterhouse. 1987. Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Concepts in Ecological Models. Ecological Monographs 57(1):1-21.

Denevan, W.M. 1992. The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82(3):369-385.

Douglas, A.E. 1920. Evidence of Climatic Effects in the Annual Rings of Trees. Ecology 1(1):24-32.

---. 1941. Crossdating in Dendrochronology. Journal of Forestry 39:825-831.

Durant, E., and McArthur. 1995. Plant inventory, succession, and reclamation alternatives on disturbed lands in Grand Teton National Park. Proceedings: Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium: Las Vegas, NV October 19-21. USDA Forest Servi ce, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT General Technical Report INT GTR-315.

Ellison, A.M. 1995. Response of a wetland vascular plant community to disturbance: a simulation study. Ecological Applications 5:109-123.

Emers, M. 1995. Old-growth disturbance and ecosystem management. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:918-926.

Emers, M., J.C. Jorgenson, and M.K. Raynolds. 1995. Response of arctic tundra plant communities to winter vehicle disturbance. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:905-917.

Everett, R., P. Hessburg, J. Lehmkuhl, M. Jensen, and P. Bourgeron. 1994. Old Forests in Dynamic Landscapes: Dry-site forests of eastern Oregon and Washington. Journal of Forestry 92:22-25.

Fahrig, L. 1990. Interacting Effects of Disturbance and Dispersal on Individual Selection and Population Stability. Comments Theoretical Biology 1:275-297.

---. 1992. Relative Importance of Spatial and Temporal Scales in a Patchy Environment. Theoretical Population Biology 41(3):300-314.

Fenwood, J. 1992. Using silviculture to achieve a desired future condition for biological diversity in the Southern Region. Getting to the future through silviculture: workshop proceedings, Cedar City, UT May 6-9, 1991. USDA 1992 General Technical Re port INT-291.

Fewster, P.H. 1991. Regression Modelling of Perturbation in Some Vegetation Types. Pages 581 in E. Feoli and L. Orloci, editors. Computer Assisted Vegetation Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA.

Finch, D.M. 1996. Ecosystem disturbance and wildlife conservation in western grasslands: a symposium proceedings. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station General Technical Report RM GTR-285.

Fischer, W.C. 1989. The Fire Effects Information System: An Aid for Wilderness Fire Management. Pages 22-23 in T. Walsh, editor. Wilderness and Wildfire. Wilderness Institute, Montana Forest and Range Experiment Station, School of Forestry, Univ. of Montana. Misc. Pub. No. 50, June 1989, Missoula, MT.

Flanagan, P.T. 1997. Ecological relationships among insects pathogens and fire in subalpine forests. Diverse forests, abundant opportunities and evolving realities: proceedings of the 1996 Society of American Foresters convention, Albuquerque, NM, No vember 9-13, 1996, Bethesda, MD.

Formam, R.T.T., and E.W.B. Russell. 1983. Evaluation of Historical Data in Ecology. Bulletin of the Ecologcical Society of America 64:5-7.

Forman, R.T., and M. Godron. 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.

Foster, D.R. 1988. Species and Stand Response to Catastrophic Wind in Central New England, U.S.A. Journal of Ecology 76:135-151.

Freedman, B. 1995. Environmental Ecology: the eological effects of pollution, disturbance and other stresses, 2nd Edition. Academic Press, San Diego.

Fritts, H.C. 1976. Tree Rings and Climate. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.

Fritts, H.C., and T.W. Swetnam. 1989. Dendrochronology: A Tool for Evaluating Variations in Past and Present Forest Environments. Advances in Ecological Research 19:111-188.

Fritts, H.C., D.G. Smith, J.W. Cardis, and C.A. Bodelsky. 1965. Tree-Ring Characteristics Along a Vegetation Gradient in Northern Arizona. Ecology 46:393-401.

Frome, M. 1962. Whose Woods These Are: The Story of the National Forests. Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, N.Y.

Fuller, M. 1991. Forest Fires: An Introduction to Wildland Fire Behavior. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.

Gabrielsen, G.W., and E.N. Smith. 1995. Physiological responses of wildlife to disturbance. Pages 95-107 in Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Volume a. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Gara, R.I., W.R. Littke, J.K. Agee, D.R. Geiszler, J.D. Stuart, and C.H. Driver. 1984. Influence of Fires, Fungi and Mountain Pine Beetles on Development of a Lodgepole Pine Forest in South-Central Oregon. In: Lodgepole Pine: the Species and Manageme nt, proceedings, May 8-10, 1984, Spokane, Washington, and repeated May 14-16, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Geils, B.W. 1995. Disturbance regimes and their relationships to forest health. Forest health through silviculture: proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop, Mescalero, New Mexico, May 8-11, 1995. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain For est and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. General Technical Report, RM GTR-267.

George, M.R., J.R. Brown, and W.J. Clawson. 1992. Application of Nonequilibrium Ecology to Management of Mediterranean Grasslands. Journal of Range Management 45:436-440.

George, T.L., A.C. Fowler, R.L. Knight, and L.C. McEwen. 1992. Impacts of a Severe Drought on Grassland Birds in Western North Dakota. Ecological Applications 2(3):275-284.

Gordon, J.C. 1993. Ecosystem Management: An Idiosyncratic Overview. Pages 240-244 in G. H. Aplet, N. Johnson, J. T. Olson and V. A. Sample, editors. Defining Sustainable Forestry. Island Press, The Wilderness Society, Washington, D.C.

Gosz, J.R. 1992. Gradient Analysis of Ecological Change in Time and Space: Implications for Forest Management. Ecological Applications 2(3):248-261.

Graham, R.L., C.T. Hunsaker, R.V. O'Neill, and B.L. Jackson. 1991. Ecological Risk Assessment at the Regional Scale. Ecological Applications 1(2):196-206.

Greenberg, C.H., L.D. Harris, and D.G. Neary. 1995. A comparison of bird communities in burned and salvage logged, clearcut and forested Florida sand pine scrub. Wilson Bulletin 107:40-54.

Grumbine, E.R. 1994. What is Ecosystem Management? Conservation Biology 8(1):27-38.

Gutsell, S.L., and E.A. Johnson. 1996. How fire scars are formed: coupling a disturbance process to its ecological effect. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:166-174.

Hadley, K.S., and T.T. Veblen. 1993. Stand Response to Western Spruce Budworm and Douglas-fir Bark Beetle Outbreaks, Colorado Front Range. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:479-491.

Haines-Young, R., D.R. Green, and S.H. Cousins, editors. 1993. Landscape Ecology and GIS. Taylor and Francis Ltd., Bristol, PA.

Hammett, J.E. 1992. The Shapes of Adaptation: Historical Ecology of Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Southeastern United States. Landscape Ecology 7(2):121-135.

Hammond, D.S., and V.K. Brown. 1995. Seed size of woody plants in relation to disturbance, dispersal, soil type in wet neotropical forests. Ecology 76:254402561.

Harris, L.D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation of Biotic Diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Hennon, P.E. 1995. Are heart rot fungi major factors of disturbance in gap-dynamic forests? Northwest Science 69:284-293.

Henry, J.D., and M.A. Swan. 1974. Reconstructing Forest History From Live and Dead Plant Material - An Approach to the Study of Forest Succession in Southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55:772-783.

Hobbs, R.J. 1990. Remote Sensing of Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Vegetation. Pages 203-219 in R. J. Hobbs and H. A. Mooney, editors. Ecological Studies: Analysis and Synthesis, Remote Sensing of Biosphere Functioning. Volume 79. Springer-Verlag, Secaucus, NJ.

Hobbs, R.J., and L.F. Huenneke. 1992. Disturbance, Diversity, and Invasion: Implications for Conservation. Conservation Biology 6(3):324-337.

Hoekstra, T.W. 1995. What is disturbance ecology and what are the implications for forest pathology. Proceedings of the forth-third annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, Big Mountain Resort, Whitefish, Montana, August 29-Septem ber 1, 1995.

Holah, J.C., M.V. Wilson, and E.M. Hansen. 1993. Effects of a native forest pathogen, Phellinus weirii, on Douglas-fir forest composition in western Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:2473-2480.

Holt, R.D., G.R. Robinson, and M.S. Gaines. 1995. Vegetation dynamics in an experimentally fragmented landscape. Ecology 76:1610-1624.

Howarth, P.J., and G.M. Wickware. 1981. Procedures for Change Detection Using Landsat Digital Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2(3):277-291.

Hunter, J.C., and V.T. Parker. 1993. The Disturbance Regime of an Old-growth Forest in Coastal California. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:19-24.

Hunter, M.L.J. 1993. Natural Fire Regimes as Spatial Models for Managing Boreal Forests. biological conservation 65:115-120.

Iwasa, Y., and T. Kubo. 1995. Forest gap dynamics with partially schncronized disturbances and patch age distribution. Ecological modelling 77:257-271.

Jardon, Y., L. Filion, and C. Cloutier. 1994. Tree-ring Evidence for Endemicity of the Larch Sawfly in North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:742-747.

Johnson, A.H. 1995. Comment: Synchronic large-scale disturbances and red spruce growth decline. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25:851-858.

Johnson, E.A. 1987. The Relative importance of Snow Avalanche Disturbance and Thinning on Canopy Plant Populations. Ecology 68(1):43-53.

Johnson, E.A., and G.I. Fryer. 1989. Population Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine-Engelmann Spruce Forsts. Ecology 70(5):1335-1345.

Johnson, E.A., and C.P.S. Larsen. 1991. Climatically Induced Change in Fire Frequency in the Southern Canadian Rockies. Ecology 72(1):194-201.

Johnson, E.A., K. Miyanishi, and J.M.H. Weir. 1995. Old-growth disturbance and ecosystem management. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:918-926.

Johnson, L.b. 1990. Analyzing Spatial and Temporal Phenomena Using Geographical Information Systems: A Review of Ecological Applications. Landscape Ecology 4(1):31-43.

Keane, R.E., S.F. Arno, and J.K. Brown. 1990. Simulating Cumulative Fire Effects in Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forests. Ecology 71(1):189-203.

Kimmins, J.P. 1996. Importance of soil and role of ecosystem disturbance for sustained productivity of cool temperate and boreal forests. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60:1643-1654.

Knight, D. 1987. Parasites, Lightning, and the Vegetation Mosaic in Wilderness Landscapes. Pages 59-83 in M. G. Turner, editor. Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Kolb, T.E., M.R. Wagner, and W.W. Covington. 1994. Concepts of Forest. Journal of Forestry:10-15.

Kufman, H.M. 1964. Pitch Defects in Red Pine Associated with Unsuccessful Attacks by Ips spp. Journal of Forestry 62:322-325.

LaMarche, V.C., Jr. 1982. Sampling Stategies. Pages 2-8 in F. M. Hughes, J. R. Pilcher and V. C. LaMarche Jr., editors. Climate From Tree-Rings. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Latta, S.C. 1995. An experimental study of nest predation in a subtopical wet forest following hurrican disturbance. Wilson Bulletin 107:577-589.

Leopold, A. 1924. Grass, Brush, Timber, and Fire in Southern Arizona. Journal of Forestry 22:2-3.

Li, C., M. Ter-Mikaelian, and A. Perera. 1997. Temporal fire disturbance patterns on a forest landscape. Ecological modelling 99:137-150.

Li, H., J.F. Franklin, F.J. Swanson, and T.A. Spies. 1993. Developing Alternative Forest Cutting Patterns: A Simulation Approach. Landscape Ecology 8(1):63-75.

Lindenmayer, D.B. 1995. Forest disturbance, forest wildlife conservation and the conservative basis for forest management in the mountain ash forests of Victoria. Forest Ecology and Management 74:223-231.

Linnell, J.D.C. 1995. Site tenacity in roe deer: short-term effects of logging. Wildlife society bulletin 23:31-35.

Loftin, S.R., and C.S. White. 1996. Potential nitrogen contribution of soil cryptograms to post-disturbance forest ecosystems in Bandelier National Monument, NM. Fire effects in southwestern forests: proceedings of the second LaMesa Fire Symposium, L os Alamos, NM, March 29-31, 1994. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. General Technical Report RM GTR-286.

Logan, J.A. 1994. In Defense of Big Ugly Models. American Entomologist 40(4):202-207.

Lorimer, C.G. 1985. Methodological considerations in the analysis of forest disturbance history. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:200-213.

Lorimer, C.G., and L.E. Frelich. 1994. Natural Disturbance Regimes in Old-Growth Northern Hardwoods: Implications for Restoration Efforts. Journal of Forestry 92:33-38.

Lundquist, J.E. 1995. Disturbance profile: a measure of small-scale disturbance patterns in Ponderosa Pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management 74:49-59.

---. 1995. Characterizing disturbance in managed ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills. Forest Ecology and Management 74:61-74.

---. 1995. Pest interactions and canopy gaps in Ponderosa Pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 74:37-48.

Lundquist, J.E., B.W. Geils, and J.F. Negron. 1995. Integrating applications for understanding the effects of small-scale disturbances in forest ecosystems. Analysis in support of ecosystem management: analysis workshop III, April 10-13, 1995, Fort C ollins, CO. Washington D.C.: USDA Forest Service, Ecosystem Management Analysis Center, 1995.

Lundquist, J.E., and J.P.J. Ward. 1995. Describing the conditions of forest ecosystems using disturbance profiles. Forest health through silviculture: proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop, Mescalero, New Mexico, May 8-11, 1995. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. General Technical Report, RM GTR-267.

Malanson, G.P., and D.R. Butler. 1984. Avalanche Paths as Fuel Breaks: Implications for Fire Management. Journal of Environmental Management 19:229-238.

Maldenoff, D.J. 1996. LANDIS: A spatial model for forest landscape distubance, succession and management. Pages 175-179 in GIS and environmental modeling: progress and research issues. GIS World Books, Fort Collins, CO.

Mallik, A.U. 1995. Conversion of temperate forests into heaths: role of ecosystem disturbance and ericaceous plants. Environmental management 19:675-684.

Martell, D.L. 1996. Old-growth, disturbance and ecosystem management: commentary. Canadian Journal of Botany 74:509-510.

Martin, R. 1988. Interaction Among Fire, Arthropods, and diseases in a Healthy Forest. Pages 87-91 in Healthy Forests, Healthy World: Proceedings of the 1988 Society of American Foresters National Convention, Rochester, N.Y., Oct. 16-19, 1988. Societ y of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD.

Maser, C. 1988. The Redesigned Forest. R. & E. Miles, San Pedro, CA.

Mattson, W.J., and N.D. Addy. 1975. Phytophagous Insects as Regulators of Forest Primary Production. Science 190:515-522.

McArthur. 1995. Plant inventory, succession, and reclamation alternatives on disturbed lands in Grand Teton National Park. Proceedings: Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium: Las Vegas, NV October 19-21, 1993. USDA Forest Service, Ogden, UT: Intermountain Research Station. General Technical Report INT GTR-315.

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McCune, B., and T.F.H. Allen. 1984. Will Similar Forests Develop on Similar Sites? Canadian Journal of Botany 63:367-376.

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