Fuels Characterization

Ground, surface, and canopy fuels data were collected on plots systematically distributed throughout endemic, epidemic, and post-epidemic stands in each of the three forest types. Ground and surface fuels were measured using methods developed by Brown (1971), Brown et al. (1982), and Anderson (1974). Data used for calculating canopy fuels (total available canopy fuel load and crown bulk density) were collected from healthy and bark beetle-affected trees on variable radius plots superimposed from plot center using methods developed by Brown (1978), Call and Albini (1997), and Page and Jenkins (2007). The variable radius plots were also used to collect standard forest mensuration data (tree species, diameter at breast height, crown class, tree heights, tree ages, and regeneration). Other data recorded included the slope, aspect, and habitat type of each plot. Page and Jenkins (2007) provide a detailed discussion of these methods.