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Note that there is a mandatory long mark which makes an important distinction in the passive forms of the third, third -io and fourth conjugations: the second-person singular present-tense form in third conjugation (-eris) has a short -e- (the thematic vowel), in contrast to the second-person singular future-tense form (-êris) which has a long -ê- (the future tense sign). Note also the present passive infinitive in the third and third -io conjugations which has a very abridged ending, -î, lacking the usual -r- which marks other infinitives.
Click here for a worksheet on third, third -io and fourth conjugation passive forms and on writing synopses.
causa: This word forms a "preposition" of sorts, causâ, a frozen form of the ablative. It normally follows the genitive word which is attached to it, e.g. pecuniae causâ ("for the sake of money"). Note that, besides "reason, cause," causa can also mean "lawsuit, legal case." In vulgar Latin, causa eventually replaced res, the usual word for "lawsuit," and as a result, some Romance languages generalized the meaning of causa from "a legal matter or thing" to "any matter or thing," hence Italian cosa and French chose. The English word "thing" followed much the same path, arising from Old English "thing" (originally meaning "judicial assembly") to the modern connotation.
finis: An i-stem noun. From its meaning "end, edge, boundary," the plural came to mean "the edges, the boundaries (of a country)," hence "a territory (i.e. the land included within certain boundaries), an area controlled by a certain people."
gens: An i-stem noun, denoting any group which can be seen as genetically linked.
atque/ac: = at ("but") + -que ("and"). Atque has a stronger connective force than simple et. Be careful not to confuse ac (the connective "and") and at (the adversative "but").
mundus: The base mund- means "neat, elegant, refined" and was used by Romans as an equivalent of the Greek term kosmos, denoting first "order, ornament, decoration (especially, women's toiletries)," and later figuratively "the world, the universe, mankind" (Plato). By Cicero's day, Latin mundus had come to mean "the world."
tango: This verb has a reduplicated perfect, tetigi, which shows the regular loss of the nasal infix (-n-) which characterizes the present base, see Chapter 12.
Practice and Review
4/9. Note the use of causâ as a "post-position" in these sentences.
9. Here, bonus has the sense of "happy; pleasant."
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