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Chapter 22

RULE 1: Fifth declension represents e-stem nouns. Most are feminine in gender.

I. Grammar

A. Fifth Declension

Representing nouns which have a base ending in -e, fifth declension exhibits endings which look most like those seen in third declension (with second-declension endings in the genitive). Note how e—and long ê, in particular—dominates the declension.

NOM -e + s = -ês -e + ês = -ês
GEN -e + î = -eî -e + ôrum = -êrum
DAT -e + î = -eî -e + ibus = -êbus
ACC -e + em = -em -e + ês = -ês
ABL -e + e = -ê -e + ibus = -êbus

II. Vocabulary

For a complete list of vocabulary in Wheelock, Chapters 1-22, click here.

ignis: An i-stem noun.

tollo: Meaning literally "lift," this verb carries many connotations, e.g. "carry off, steal" (booty/spoils), "destroy, remove, abolish" (enemies), "rescue, save" (friends). Its perfect forms sustuli and sublatus were derived from a defunct compound, *sub-tollo.

medius: Means "the middle of X."

alo: The perfect passive participle of this verb, altus (literally "nourished"), had a sense of "grown great" and thus came to mean "high, tall." Seen not from the ground up but looked down on from above, a "tall" thing is "deep," and therefore altus also came to mean "deep," hence also "mystical, secret, ancient."

III. Sentences

Practice and Review

2. Inasmuch as finibus in this sentence must be an impersonal agent—no ab!—continebantur is best taken as "were confined/enclosed."

4. Here, tollo has a sense of "destroy."

IV. Reading from the Book of Luke

Click here for a reading from the Vulgate text of the Book of Luke, Chapter 2.1-21 (the birth of Jesus).

V. Review for Test 4 (Final Examination)

Test 4: Review


I. Write synopses of the following verbs in the persons and numbers given. (24 points)

Verb: tango Person/Number: 1st singular

______________________________   ________________________________

______________________________   ________________________________

______________________________   ________________________________

_____________________________   _______________________________

______________________________   _______________________________

Future Perfect
_____________________________   _______________________________


Verb: alo Person/Number: 2nd singular

______________________________   ________________________________

______________________________   ________________________________

______________________________   ________________________________

_____________________________   _______________________________

______________________________   _______________________________

Future Perfect
_____________________________   _______________________________

II. Translate the following verb forms -- PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO TENSE AND VOICE! If necessary, write the tense and voice out to the side to show that you know it. (30 points)

1. missae eramus

2. iungeris

3. dabuntur

4. acta sunt

5. rape

6. rapi

7. rapui

8. sustuleris

9. tollêris

10. sublata eris

III. Match the grammatical use of the word (listed by letter) above to the word below. In other words, match the case of the words below to their possible use(s) above. THERE CAN BE MORE THAN ONE POSSIBLE GRAMMATICAL USE FOR A WORD, SO THERE CAN BE MORE THAN ONE POSSIBLE RIGHT ANSWER IN EACH BLANK. GIVE ALL POSSIBLE RIGHT ANSWERS. (HINT: there are sixteen [16] total right answers). (16 points)

a. subject f. object of the preposition trans
b. possession g. separation
c. indirect object h. object of the "post-position" causa
d. direct object  
e. object of the preposition ab  

______ 1. oculo

______ 2. quae

______ 3. rerum

______ 4. senatus

______ 5. poenas

______ 6. veritas

______ 7. amori

______ 8. filii

IV. Translate the following sentences into cogent English which shows that you know the syntax of the Latin sentences. Answer the grammar questions appended to each sentence. (30 pts.)

1. Illis diebus istae manûs acres a quibus territi eratis copiarum delebantur.


What case is diebus and why?

What case is quibus and why? _____________________________________________________
What case is and why? _____________________________________________________

2. Quorum libertatis causâ difficilia magnâ cum fide geretis?



What case is libertatis and why? __________________________________________________
What case is difficilia and why? __________________________________________________
What case is fide and why? __________________________________________________

3. Propter quorum consilia ab hostibus vincebantur et suâ libertate carebunt?



What case is consilia and why? __________________________________________________
What case is hostibus and why? __________________________________________________
What case is libertate and why? __________________________________________________



1. tango tangor
  tangebam tangebar
  tangam tangar
  tetigi tactus sum
  tetigeram tactus eram
  tetigero tactus ero
2. alis aleris
  alebas alebaris
  ales alêris
  aluisti altus es
  alueras altus eras
  alueris altus eris

II. 1. we (f.) had been sent 6. to be seized
  2. you are joined 7. I have seized
  3. they will be given 8. you will have raised
  4. they (n.) have been done 9. you will be raised
  5. seize! 10. you (f.) will have been raised

III. 1. oculo: c, e, g (IO, object of ab, separation)
  2. quae: a, d, f (subject, DO, object of trans)
  3. rerum: b, h (possession, object of causâ)
  4. senatus: a (subject)
  5. poenas: d, f (DO, object of trans)
  6. veritas: a (subject)
  7. amori: c (IO)
  8. filii: a, b, h (subject, possession, object of causâ)

IV. 1. In those days those (grrr!) ferocious bands (of men) by which you had been terrified were being destroyed by the force of troops.
diebus: ablative of (point in) time
quibus: ablative of personal agent
: ablative of impersonal agent or means

2. For the sake of whose (pl.) liberty will you (pl.) do difficult things with great trustworthiness?
libertatis: genitive, object of causâ
difficilia: accusative, DO
fide: ablative of manner

3. Because of whose plans were they conquered by the enemy and will they lose their (own) freedom?
consilia: accusative, object of propter
hostibus: ablative of personal agent
libertate: ablative of separation


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