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Chapter 35

RULE 1: The dative case is used with ten special verbs (listed in Wheelock on pages 168-9), certain compound verbs and certain adjectives.

RULE 2: Dative of Possession = Dative + a form of esse [literally, "it is to me" = "I have it"]. (see Supplementary Syntax)


I. Grammar

A. Dative with Certain Verbs

Certain Latin verbs expect a dative rather than accusative object. In memorizing which ones do this, it's best to learn the literal meaning of these "special" verbs, e.g. ignosco "grant pardon (to . . . )," along with their more figurative translations; see below, Vocabulary.

B. Dative with Compound Verbs

When a noun is felt to be the object not of a verb but its prefix, that noun will take the dative case. On page 169, footnote 1, Wheelock lists those prepositions which in compound take the dative. This list should be memorized.

Click here for a worksheet (with answers) on verb forms and expectations.

C. Other Uses of the Dative of Possession

Since this is the last time in this class which we will address the dative as such, there are two important applications of this case which Wheelock includes in the Supplementary Syntax (click here): the Dative of Possession and the Dative with Certain Adjectives (both on page 375). Review and study these constructions; they will be seen on tests.

1. Dative of Possession

Learn the formula, "Est liber mihi" (literally "there is a book to me"), which is better rendered in English as "I have a book."

2. Dative with Certain Adjectives

Certain adjectives, many of which correspond with their English counterparts in usage as well as sense, call for a dative noun to complete their meaning, e.g.:

amicus/inimicus: "friendly/unfriendly (to . . . )"
proximus: "(very) near (to . . . )"
par: "equal (to . . . )"

To these can be added similis/dissimilis, fidelis/infidelis, carus, iucundus, etc.


II. Vocabulary

noceo: Takes a dative object, "be harmful (to . . .)."

parco: Takes a dative object, "be lenient (to . . .)." Peperci is a reduplicated perfect with vowel gradation. This verb has no true passive and, therefore, the future active participle is substituted for the missing perfect passive participle.

pareo: Takes a dative object, "be obedient (to . . .)." Do not confuse this verb with paro (first conjugation, "prepare")!

persuadeo: Takes a dative object, "make sweet (for . . .)."

placeo: Takes a dative object, "be pleasing (to . . .)."

servio: Takes a dative object, "be subservient (to . . .)." Do not confuse this verb with servo (first conjugation, "save").

studeo: Takes a dative object, "be eager (for . . .)." This verb has no true passive forms, which is why no fourth principal part is listed.

antepono: Takes an accusative object of the verb (pono) and a dative object of the compound (ante); that is, "to put something (accusative) before something (dative)," meaning "to prefer X (accusative) to Y (dative)."

ignosco: Takes a dative object, "be forgiving (to . . .)." Though in origin it means "not know," it came to have the sense "fail to acknowledge a transgression," and thus "forgive."


III. Sentences

Practice and Review

1. Plena is a predicate adjective and nascor operates here as a linking verb.

2. This sentence exemplifies a common Latin sentence pattern. A noun used as subject of a clause as well as the subject of the main sentence will precede both, e.g. "Caesar, when he saw the enemy, (he) ran away and hid."

 

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