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Chapter 37

RULE 1: The base of the verb eo is -i- (or -e-, seen in eo, eunt and the present subjunctive).

RULE 2: The ablative case shows place from which and time at which.

RULE 3: The accusative case shows motion toward and time during which.

RULE 4: The locative case shows place where and is used primarily with names of cities and islands.


I. Grammar

A. Eo

Except for the variation of the base (-i- or -e-), eo hardly qualifies as an irregular verb. Assume that the base is -i- and focus on exceptions:

1. base = -e-: eo, eunt, the present subjunctive (eam, eas, . . .);
2. the present active participle uses both bases: iens (euntis, eunti, . . .).

The future endings are -bo, -bis, etc., familiar from the first and second conjugation. All other tenses are regular.

B. The Locative Case

The relative infrequency with which the locative case appears in Latin merits its displacement to a point so late in the course. All in all, the locative amounts to little more than a special usage seen with certain nouns and city names. Learn the five examples listed by Wheelock on page 178, II (1), along with domi (page 179).

C. The Accusative of Duration of Time

This construction is the counterpart to the ablative of time, which was introduced in Chapter 15. It employs no preposition and expresses time "during/through/over/for" which something has occurred.

D. "The Devil and the Thirteenth-Century Schoolboy"

In reviewing for Test 3, we will read together in class a passage of Medieval Latin, "The Devil and the Thirteenth-Century Schoolboy" by Caesar of Heisterbach. You will be expected to prepare the passage as homework prior to our in-class translation of the text. All vocabulary is included in the notes attached to the passage or in the vocabulary at the back of Wheelock. Questions about the translation and grammar of this passage will appear as part of Test 3.

Click here for a downloadable version of that text.


II. Vocabulary

Athenae: The name of the city is plural.

domus: This noun follows two declensions: domus, -ûs is fourth, and domus, -î is second. The reason for this is that it derives originally from different nouns which used the same base (dom-) and were in the process of merging during the period of classical Latin.

gratus: + dative, "grateful to . . . , pleasing to . . . ".

ut + indicative: Note that ut can take the indicative mood, when it conveys a "factual" sense (versus the subjunctive which carries an "unreal" sense). Therefore, from the speaker's perspective ut + indicative states a truer or more verifiable reason, "he came when he was elected (and I am certain that he was elected)", than the subjunctive, "he came in order to be elected (but I am not saying whether he was elected or not)".

abeo, pereo, redeo: Note how the compounds of eo change the basic meaning of the verb "go."

licet: It's best to translate the impersonal verb licet literally at first ("it is permitted [for someone to do something]"), then attempt to render better English ("[someone] may [do something]"). It expects a dative and an infinitive, or the subjunctive without ut (e.g. licet redeas, "you may return").

soleo: This is a semi-deponent verb (see Chapter 34) and expects a complementary infinitive.


III. Review for Test 3

Test 3: Review

____________________________________
NOMEN TUUM

I. VERB FORMS. Translate the following verb forms according to tense, voice, person and number. Indicate mood to the side. Then give the expectation of the verb. If it does not take any object or predicate, say NONE. (30 pts.)


1. isset

2. coacti essent

3. ignosceremus

4. usae

5. pereuntum

6. fassi erant

7. placuissetis

8. patere

9. fiat

10. conaturorum

II. Give the name of the construction in bold. For conditional sentences, give the specific type of condition. (10 pts.)

1.

Timuimus ut veritatem disceremus.

__________________________________________________________________________

 

2.

Imperavimus illi ut ad nos accederet.

__________________________________________________________________________

 

3.

Si quis nobis noceret, abiremus.

__________________________________________________________________________

 

4.

Fratre cum timore egressuro, domi remanebo.

__________________________________________________________________________

 

5.

Nisi gratiores fient, abibimus.

__________________________________________________________________________

III. Translate the following sentences into reasonable English which reflects the syntax of the Latin sentence. Answer the grammar questions appended. (40 pts.)

1. Cum amorem pecuniae anteponam, arbitror tamen aliquid ei gratissimum habere bono licere.

 

 

 

What case is pecuniae and why? ________________________________________________
What mood is anteponam and why? ________________________________________________
What mood is licere and why? ________________________________________________


2. Hortati sumus milites ut Româ abirent et ne faterentur cur discessissent.

 

 

 

What case is Româ and why? ______________________________________________
What mood is abirent and why? ______________________________________________
What mood is discessissent and why? ______________________________________________


3. Nisi nocte illâ fugissemus domo, perissemus aut Graecis magistris servire ab hostibus coacti essemus.

 

 

 

What case is nocte and why? ________________________________________
What mood and tense is fugissemus and why? ________________________________________
What case is magistris and why? ________________________________________

4 . Eamus Athenas et loquamur nos verbis difficillimis sapienter uti.

 

 

What case is Athenas and why? ______________________________________________
What case is nos and why? ______________________________________________
What case is verbis and why? ______________________________________________


IV. In this final section you will be asked questions about the grammar of Locus Antiquus, #29, page 213 (Wheelock): "The Devil and a Thirteenth-Century Schoolboy." (20 pts.)

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ANSWERS

I. 1. he had gone (S), NONE 6. they had confessed (Ind), ACC (+ INF)
  2. they had been forced (S), PA 7. you had pleased (S), DAT
  3. we were forgiving (S), DAT 8. Suffer! (Imp), ACC (+ INF)
  4. (f. pl. nom.) having used (Part), ABL 9. Let it happen/be done/become! (S), NOM/PRED
  5. of them perishing (Part), NONE/ACC* 10. (of them) about to try (Part), INF/ACC
  *possibly, ACC as "cognate accusative," i.e. "die (a good death)"

II.
1. Clause of Fearing (Negative)
2. Indirect Command
3. Present Contrary-To-Fact Condition (Protasis)
4. Ablative of Manner
5. Future More Vivid Condition (Apodosis)

III. 1. Although I put love before money, nevertheless I think a good man may (lit. "it is permitted for a good man to") have anything most pleasing to him.
pecuniae: dative with compound verb
anteponam: subjunctive in cum clause
licere: infinitive in indirect statement

2. We urged the soldiers to go away from Rome and not to admit why they had departed.
Româ: ablative of place from which
abirent: subjunctive in indirect command
discessissent: subjunctive in indirect question

3. If we had not fled from home (on) that night, we would have perished or (we would have) been forced by the enemy to serve Greek masters.
nocte: ablative of point in time
fugissemus: pluperfect subjunctive in the protasis of a past contrary-to-fact condition
magistris: dative, (indirect) object of servio

4. Let us go to Athens and say that we use the most difficult words wisely.
Athenas: accusative of motion towards (OR accusative, place to which)
nos: accusative subject in indirect statement
verbis: ablative object of utor

 

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