RULE 1: The base of the verb eo is -i-
(or -e-, seen in eo, eunt and the present
RULE 2: The ablative case shows place from which and
time at which.
RULE 3: The accusative case shows motion toward and
time during which.
RULE 4: The locative case shows place where and is
used primarily with names of cities and islands.
Except for the variation of the base (-i- or -e-),
eo hardly qualifies as an irregular verb. Assume that the base
is -i- and focus on exceptions:
1. base = -e-: eo, eunt,
the present subjunctive (eam, eas,
. . .);
2. the present active participle uses both bases: iens
. . .).
The future endings are -bo, -bis, etc., familiar from
the first and second conjugation. All other tenses are regular.
B. The Locative Case
The relative infrequency with which the locative case appears in Latin
merits its displacement to a point so late in the course. All in all,
the locative amounts to little more than a special usage seen with certain
nouns and city names. Learn the five examples listed by Wheelock on page
178, II (1), along with domi (page 179).
The Accusative of Duration of Time
This construction is the counterpart to the ablative of time, which was
introduced in Chapter 15.
It employs no preposition and expresses time "during/through/over/for"
which something has occurred.
D. "The Devil and the Thirteenth-Century
In reviewing for Test 3, we will read together in class a passage of
Medieval Latin, "The Devil and the Thirteenth-Century Schoolboy"
by Caesar of Heisterbach. You will be expected to prepare the passage
as homework prior to our in-class translation of the text. All vocabulary
is included in the notes attached to the passage or in the vocabulary
at the back of Wheelock. Questions about the translation and grammar of
this passage will appear as part of Test 3.
Click here for a downloadable
version of that text.
Athenae: The name of the city is plural.
domus: This noun follows two declensions: domus,
-ûs is fourth, and domus, -î is
second. The reason for this is that it derives originally from different
nouns which used the same base (dom-) and were in the process
of merging during the period of classical Latin.
gratus: + dative, "grateful to
. . . , pleasing to . . . ".
ut + indicative: Note that ut can
take the indicative mood, when it conveys a "factual" sense
(versus the subjunctive which carries an "unreal" sense). Therefore,
from the speaker's perspective ut + indicative states a truer
or more verifiable reason, "he came when he was elected
(and I am certain that he was elected)", than the subjunctive, "he
came in order to be elected (but I am not saying whether he was
elected or not)".
abeo, pereo, redeo: Note how the compounds
of eo change the basic meaning of the verb "go."
licet: It's best to translate the impersonal
verb licet literally at first ("it is permitted [for someone
to do something]"), then attempt to render better English ("[someone]
may [do something]"). It expects a dative and an infinitive, or the
subjunctive without ut (e.g. licet redeas, "you
soleo: This is a semi-deponent verb (see Chapter
34) and expects a complementary infinitive.
for Test 3
Test 3: Review
I. VERB FORMS. Translate the following verb forms
according to tense, voice, person and number. Indicate mood to the
side. Then give the expectation of the verb. If it does not take
any object or predicate, say NONE. (30 pts.)
2. coacti essent
6. fassi erant
II. Give the name of the construction in bold.
For conditional sentences, give the specific type of condition.
Timuimus ut veritatem
Imperavimus illi ut ad nos accederet.
Si quis nobis noceret, abiremus.
Fratre cum timore egressuro,
Nisi gratiores fient, abibimus.
III. Translate the following sentences into reasonable
English which reflects the syntax of the Latin sentence. Answer
the grammar questions appended. (40 pts.)
1. Cum amorem pecuniae anteponam,
arbitror tamen aliquid ei gratissimum habere bono licere.
|What case is pecuniae and why?
|What mood is anteponam and why?
|What mood is licere and why?
2. Hortati sumus milites ut Româ abirent
et ne faterentur cur discessissent.
|What case is Româ
|What mood is abirent and why?
|What mood is discessissent and
3. Nisi nocte illâ fugissemus
domo, perissemus aut Graecis magistris servire
ab hostibus coacti essemus.
|What case is nocte and why?
|What mood and tense is fugissemus and why?
|What case is magistris and why?
4 . Eamus Athenas et loquamur nos
verbis difficillimis sapienter uti.
|What case is Athenas and why?
|What case is nos and why?
|What case is verbis and why?
IV. In this final section you will be asked questions
about the grammar of Locus Antiquus, #29, page 213 (Wheelock):
"The Devil and a Thirteenth-Century Schoolboy." (20 pts.)
||1. he had gone (S), NONE
||6. they had confessed (Ind), ACC
||2. they had been forced (S), PA
||7. you had pleased (S), DAT
||3. we were forgiving (S), DAT
||8. Suffer! (Imp), ACC (+ INF)
||4. (f. pl. nom.) having used (Part), ABL
||9. Let it happen/be done/become! (S), NOM/PRED
||5. of them perishing (Part), NONE/ACC*
||10. (of them) about to try (Part), INF/ACC
||*possibly, ACC as "cognate
accusative," i.e. "die (a good death)"
1. Clause of Fearing (Negative)
2. Indirect Command
3. Present Contrary-To-Fact Condition (Protasis)
4. Ablative of Manner
5. Future More Vivid Condition (Apodosis)
III. 1. Although I put love before money, nevertheless
I think a good man may (lit. "it is permitted for a good man
to") have anything most pleasing to him.
pecuniae: dative with compound verb
anteponam: subjunctive in cum clause
licere: infinitive in indirect statement
2. We urged the soldiers to go away from Rome and not to admit
why they had departed.
Româ: ablative of place from which
abirent: subjunctive in indirect command
discessissent: subjunctive in indirect question
3. If we had not fled from home (on) that night, we would have
perished or (we would have) been forced by the enemy to serve Greek
nocte: ablative of point in time
fugissemus: pluperfect subjunctive in the protasis
of a past contrary-to-fact condition
magistris: dative, (indirect) object of servio
4. Let us go to Athens and say that we use the most difficult words
Athenas: accusative of motion towards (OR accusative,
place to which)
nos: accusative subject in indirect statement
verbis: ablative object of utor