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Chapter 40

RULE 1: Only unus, duo, tres and the plural of mille decline. All other numbers are indeclinable.

RULE 2: The Partitive Genitive is used with milia, superlatives, words designating a part and special pronouns and adjectives; see Wheelock, page 192 (middle).

RULE 3: Ex/De (+ the ablative) is used with all numbers, except quidam and the plural of the mille.

I. Grammar

A. Numbers

At this late point in the class, it seems pointless to memorize all the Latin cardinals and ordinals. Moreover, numbers seldom show up in classical Roman authors so it is necessary only to be generally familiar with how they are formed. Thus, you will be required to know the cardinal numbers 1-10, 20, 100 and 1000 and the first ten ordinals (page 384).

B. The Genitive of the Whole or the Partitive Genitive

Besides possession, the genitive case can also designate the whole to which a part belongs. When it does, it is called the "Partitive Genitive" (or "Genitive of the Whole"). This construction is used commonly with milia, superlatives, words denoting a part or section (plus, pars, satis, nemo), and certain pronouns and adjectives implying partition (quid, aliquid, nihil, multum). Other words like quidam and all numbers under 2000 (including mille) use de or ex plus the ablative instead of a partitive genitive.

C. Supplementary Syntax (pp. 374-379)

In order to prepare you for reading the works of ancient authors, we must review certain constructions which Wheelock includes in the Supplementary Syntax (pp. 374-379): the genitives of material and description, and the ablatives of specification, cause and degree of difference. While these constructions will not appear on the tests for this class, they will be instrumental in translating actual Latin.

D. Additional Reading and Recitation

Here is a link to an additional Reading, a passage from Ovid's Ars Amatoria. Use this to add another Recitation score which can replace a low grade on a previous Recitation.

E. The Bayeux Tapestry

After completing Chapter 40, we'll end this course by reading and discussing the Bayeux Tapestry. Here is a link to a handout about the Bayeux Tapestry.

II. Vocabulary

[Click here for a complete list of all words (Chapters 1-40) which you are responsible for knowing in this class. Use this list to help consolidate your understanding of Latin vocabulary. Click here for a printable version of that vocabulary list.]

iustus: = *ius- "law" + -t- (the adjective-forming suffix).

tot: A sign word of a result clause; see Chapter 29.


III. Review for Test 4


Test 4: Review


I. VERB FORMS. (1) Translate the following verb forms. (2) Indicate mood to the side. (3) Tell whether the verb form will take a(n):

If a verb form does not take any object or predicate, say NONE. (30 pts.)

1. mirantium

2. ignosce

3. fit

4. iit

5. contulerim

6 . egredere

7. vitaremus

8. iturum esse

9. hortati

10. redeatis


II. CONSTRUCTIONS. In the space below give the name of the construction in bold in each sentence. For conditions, give the type of condition. (20 pts.)


Romam venit philosophiae discendae causâ.




Litteris multas horas studuerunt.




Si pecuniam amavisti, sapientiâ caruisti.




At nemo erat qui istum hominem turpem defenderet.




Rogant ubi dux sit.




Si consul abibit, mortem metuemus.




Omnes ut veniret hortatus est.




Romani contra milia militum pugnabant.




Cum se eis parsurum esse dicerent, tamen multos interfecit.




Qui interficiendo valeant, morientur.


III. SENTENCES. Translate the following sentences into English and answer the grammar questions appended. (25 pts.)

1. Decem ex ducibus hostium Athenis abierunt ad alios Graecos iuvandos.


What case is Athenis and why? ______________________________________
What construction is ad alios Graecos iuvandos? ______________________________________

2. Eôdem tempore opus est nobis(1) ferre iniurias aliorum ut nobis(2) nocentibus parcant.




What case is tempore and why? __________________________________________________
What case is nobis(1) and why? __________________________________________________
What case is nobis(2) and why? __________________________________________________
What mood is parcant and why? __________________________________________________

IV. In the last part of this test, you will be ask to translate a passage and answer grammar questions pertaining to that passage from the reading we covered in class (the Bayeux Tapestry). Click here for a link to that reading. (25 pts.)



I. PART 1. (of those) wondering: present active participle ACC
  IMP 2. forgive! (present imperative) DAT
  IND 3. it becomes/is made (present indicative, 3 s.) NOM
  IND 4. he went (perfect indicative, 3 s.) NONE
  S 5. I have compared (perfect subjunctive active, 1 s.) ACC
  IMP 6. go out! (present imperative) NONE
  S 7. we avoided (imperfect subjunctive, 1 pl.) ACC
  INF 8. to be about to go (future infinitive) NONE
  PART 9. having urged (ppp. of deponent verb) ACC
  S 10. y'all go away (present subjunctive, 2 pl.) NONE

1. Gerundive Purpose
2. Accusative of (Duration of) Time
3. Simple Fact Past (condition)
4. Relative Clause of Characteristic
5. Indirect Question
  6. Future More Vivid (condition)
  7. Indirect Command
  8. Partitive Genitive
  9. Indirect Statement
  10. Ablative of Means (with gerund)

III. 1. Ten of (lit. "from") the leaders of the enemy left [from] Athens to help the other Greeks.
Athenis: ablative, place from which (motion from)
ad alios Graecos iuvandos: gerundive purpose construction

2. At the same time it is necessary for us to suffer/endure the injuries of others in order that they be lenient to us when we do harm (lit. "doing harm").
tempore: ablative of point in time
nobis(1): dative, with opus est
nobis(2): dative, object of parco
parcant: subjunctive, purpose clause


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