©Damen, 2014


Answers to Ayers, English Words from Latin and Greek Elements, 2nd Edition (1986).
Be sure to put answers in the correct format, as below.


Lesson 17 (Greek), pp. 247-248

1. PATHo- disease
-log(y) science of
-ic/-al p.t.
dealing or concerned with disease

2. ODo- way, road
-meter instrument for measuring
(noun used as adj.)
device for measuring istance traveled

3. MICRo- small
NES- island
-ia area of
a group of smallislands in the western Pacific

4. PETRo- rock
GLYPH- carving
a carving or inscription on rock (usually prehistoric)

5. POLY- many
CHROM- color
a combination of many colors

6. POLY- many
NES- island
-ian p.t.
p.t. a group of islands in the Pacific east of Australia

7. DEMo- people
-graph writing
-er one who (Eng)
one engaged in the statistical study of human population

8. PALEo- old
-graph writing
p.t. the study of ancient writings and inscriptions

9. HIERo- holy
GLYPH- carving
-ic p.t.
(substantive, plural)
any writing that is difficult to read

10. a- not
(a) PHA- say, speak
(b) TAX- set/be in order
-sia state of
(a) the loss or impairment of the power to use or understand words
(b) loss of normal coordination, especially of the voluntary movement of muscles

11. PSYCHo- mind
-metr(y) s.o. measuring
-ist one engaged in
one skilled in the science of measuring mentaLatin processes or facts

12. THE- god
-ist one who believes in
-ic p.t.
concerning a believer in God

13. KINE- move
-tic p.t.
having to do with motion

14. ACR- first part of
ONYM- word
a word formed from first part of words

15. syn- together, with
ESTHE- feeling
-sia state of
process in which stimulation of one sense stimulates another

16. CHOREo- dance
-graphy art of writing
the dancing composed and arranged for a stage performance

17. MORPHo- form, shape
-log(y) study of
-ic/-al p.t.
relating to the form and structure of plants

18. EROT- love, sex
-ic p.t.
concerning sexual passion or love

19. (a) COSMo- universe
(b) ASTRo- star
NAUT- sailor
a pilot or member of a crew of a spacecraft

20. PATHo- disease
GEN- produce
-ic p.t.


*****Words in the following lists will appear on the Final . See the Diathesis of the Final (I.C.3a)*****

Words with Literary Origins (Part I, pp. 250-251)

1. catastrophe - "the outcome (usually death or ruin in a tragedy, usually a happy marriage in a comedy) of a literary or dramatic work, the denouement; a disaster"

2. elegaic - "in classical prosody, consisting of a dactylic hexameter couplet (dactylic: 3 syllables--1 long and 2 short; hexameter: a line consisting of six feet) often used in funerary verse; expressing sorrow"

3. catharsis - "the purging of an audience's emotions through a work of art (this is a figurative transfer of the original meaning, "purgation," from Greek katharos "pure, clean"); purification"

4. onomatopoeic - "p.t. the adaptation of a sound of a word to its meaning, for rhetorical effect; p.t. the use of a word whose sound suggests the sense"

5. panegyric - "a formal eulogy, a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing"

6. prosaic - "characteristic of prose (as opposed to poetry)"

7. parable - "a brief story used for teaching some moral lesson or attitude or a religious principle"

8. prosody - "the study or science of poetic meters and versification"; from pros- "in regard to" + OD- "song"


Analysis and Definition of Words (Part II, pp. 251-252)

1. ascetic: ASCE- exercise (from askein "to exercise") + -tic "pertaining to" = "refraining from pleasure and comforts; practicing strict self-denial as a measure of personal and, especially, spiritual discipline"

2. bucolic: BUCOL- "cowherd" (from boukolos "herdsman," from bous "cow") + -ic "pertaining to" = "pertaining to shepherds; relating to or typical of rural life"

3. cataclysmic: cata- "down" + CLYS- "to wash" (from klyzein "to wash") + -m "result of" + -ic "pertaining to" = "extremely sudden and violent; pertaining to a momentous and violent event marked by overwhelming upheaval and demolition"

4. cynosure: CYNOS- "dog" (from kynos, the genitive of the noun kyon "dog") + UR- "tail" (from oura "tail"), which combined into kynosoura (= "dog's tail") in Greek, and into cynosura in Latin. In Greek mythology, Cynosura, a nurse of Zeus and a nymph of Mount Ida, metamorphosed into Ursa Minor (Latin "smaller bear"), the constellation also referred to as Cynosure (OED 1596), a word that immediately took on figurative uses, one of which means "a center of attraction, interest, or attention" which is how it is used here.

5. didactic: DIDAC- "to teach" (from didaskein "to teach") + -tic "pertaining to" = "meant to instruct; intended to convey instruction and information as well as pleasure and entertainment"

6. hedonism: HEDON- "pleasure" (from hedone "pleasure") + -ism "belief in, practice of" = "the belief or doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life; devotion to pleasure as a way of life"

7. hegemony: HEGEMON- "leader" (from hegeisthai "to lead") + -y "state of" = "superior leadership or authority, especially of one nation over others"

8. idiosyncrasy (pl. -ies): IDIo- "one's own" + syn- "together" + CRA- "to mix" + -sy "act of, instance of" = "a characteristic peculiarity or habit, as of taste, behavior, or opinion" [Some dictionaries give the noun base CRAS- "a mixing," in which case the word should be analyzed as CRAS- + -y "act of."]

9. peripatetic: peri- "around" + PATE- "to walk (from patein "to walk") + -tic "pertaining to" = "traveling about or from place to place in connection with some occupation" [The general sense of this word derives from the adjective Peripatetic, "pertaining to the philosophy of Aristotle (in reference to his custom of pacing around while teaching)."]

10. polemic: POLEM- "war" (from polemos "war") + -ic "pertaining to" = (here, a substantive) "an argument or controversy; an aggressive attack on the opinions or principles of others"


Definition of Words (Part III, pp. 252-253)

1. adamant: "any extremely hard substance; any hard substance that is impenetrable"; from ADAMANT- (from the Greek noun adamas "the hardest metal") = a- "not" + DAMANT- (verbal adjective stem of daman "to conquer")

2. aphorism(s): "a concise statement expressing a general truth; a piece of practical wisdom"; = ap- "from" + HOROS- "boundary" + -ism "belief in," which combined in Greek to form aphorismos

3. axiom: "a statement widely accepted as being true on its own merit (without proof); a self-evident truth"; = AXIO- "worth, worthy" + -m "result of"

4. deleterious: "having a harmful effect; injurious"; from deleesthai ("to hurt") + -ous "pertaining to"

5. diatribe(s): "a harsh and bitter speech or writing, denunciation, invective, tirade"; = dia- "away" + TRIB- "wear"

6. empirical: "based on experiment and observation without regard for system and theory"; = em- "in" + PER- "experiment" + -ic "pertaining to" + -al "characteristic of"

7. epoch: "a time marked by an event that begins a new period or development, a period of time, an era; from epoche "a fixed point in time" = epi- "upon" + echein "to hold"

8. esoteric: "designed for or understood by a specially initiated few"; from ESOTER- "inner" (= comparative of eso "within")

9. ethereal: "lacking material substance, light, airy, delicate"; = aither "upper air" + -eal (variant of -al ) "p.t."

10. lethargy: "abnormal drowsiness; lack of energy"; from lethe "oblivion" + argos "lazy" (= a- "not" + ergon "work") + -y "quality of"

11. anodyne: "a medicine that relieves or lessens pain"; = an- "without" + odyne "pain"

12. paroxysm: "a sudden fit; an attack"; = para- "beside, beyond" + oxynein "to provoke, goad" (from oxys "sharp") + -m "result of"

13. pragmatic: "concerned with practical results or values, relating to matters of fact or practical affairs"; = PRAGMAT- (from pragma "deed, act") + -ic "pertaining to" [OR prattein "to do" + -ma "result of" + -tic "p.t."]

14. sardonic: "bitterly contemptuous, disdainfully humorous, derisively mocking"; = sardonios "p.t. bitter or scornful smiles or laughter" + -ic "p.t."

15. sycophantic(ally): "in the manner of a servile or self-seeking flatterer"; = sykophantes "informer, slanderer" + -tic "p.t." + -al "like" + -ly English adverb suffix


Definition of Greek Loan Words (pp. 254-256)

1. acme: from Greek akme ("point"): "highest point, the highest point or stage"

2. aroma: from Greek aroma ("spice"): "a pleasant, often spicy or sweet smell"

3. aura: from Greek aura ("breeze, breath"): "a distinctive atmosphere surrounding someone or something; a subtly pervasive quality seeming to emanate from a person, place or thing"

4. bathos: from Greek bathos ("depth"): "overdone or insincere pathos; sentimentalism"

5. colossus: from Latin colossus, from Greek kolossos ("gigantic"): "anything huge or gigantic"

6. cosmos: from New Latin cosmus, from Greek kosmos ("order, world, universe" [cf. COSM-universe]): "an orderly, harmonious, systematic universe"

7. criterion: from Greek kriterion, from krinein ("to judge" [cf. CRI- to judge]): "a standard for making a judgment or decision"

8. emporium: from Latin emporium, from Greek emporion ("market," from en- "on" + poros "voyage"): "a large store that sells a great variety of articles"

9. encomium(s): from Latin encomium, from Greek enkomion ("laudatory," from en- "in" + komos "revelry"): "glowing and elaborately enthusiastic praise"

10. enigma: from Latin aenigma, from Greek ainigma (from ainos "fable, riddle"): "a baffling or puzzling situation"

11. eon(s): from Latin aeon, from Greek aion ("lifetime, age"): "any very long period of time; in geologic terms, two or more eras (as Cenozoic, Mesozoic, etc.)"

12. hoi polloi: from Greek hoi polloi ("the many"): "the general populace, ordinary people, the masses"

13. iota: from Latin iota, from Greek iota (iota is the smallest letter in the Greek alphabet): "an infinitesimal part or amount; bit; jot; whit"

14. lexicon: from Greek lexikon, a substantive derived from lexis ("word"): "the vocabulary of a particular group"

15. miasma: from New Latin miasma, from Greek miasma ("pollution"): "a bad-smelling, perhaps poisonous, vapor rising from decaying matter on the earth"

16. nostalgia: from New Latin nostalgia, from Greek nostos ("homecoming") + ALG- "pain": "a longing or wistful yearning for things belonging to the past"

17. panacea: from Latin panacea, from Greek panakeia (from PAN- "all" + akos "cure, remedy"): "a remedy for all difficulties"

18. pathos: from Greek pathos ("suffering, experience, emotion" [cf. PATH- to suffer]): "a quality or element that arouses a feeling of pity, sadness, or compassion"

19. phalanx: from Latin phalanx, from Greek phalanx ("line of battle"): in a figurative sense (as here), "a number of persons united for a common purpose"

20. phenomenon (pl. -a): from Late Latin phaenomenon ("appearance"), from Greek phainomenon ("[something] appearing, apparent" [cf. PHA- "to show"]): "a fact or event that can be observed" [-a = Greek plural of -on]

21. plethora: from Late Latin plethora, from Greek plethora ("fullness"): "superabundance; excess; superfluity; oversupply"

22. prolegomenon: from prolegomenon ("anything said beforehand," = pro- "before" + legein "to say"): "preliminary material in a book; introduction, preface"

23. stigma: from Latin stigma, from Greek stigma ("mark, puncture"): "a mark of disgrace or discredit"

24. thesaurus (pl. -i): from Latin thesaurus, from Greek thesauros ("storehouse, treasure"): here, "any book filled with information" [-i = Latin plural of -us]

25. trauma: from Greek trauma ("a wound"): "an emotional shock which has a lasting effect on the mind; any abnormal physical or mental condition produced by shock or injury; also, any bodily injury or wound"