©Damen, 2014

LATIN AND GREEK ELEMENTS IN ENGLISH

Answers to Ayers, English Words from Latin and Greek Elements, 2nd Edition (1986).
Be sure to put answers in the correct format, as below.

 

Lesson 17 (Greek), pp. 247-248

1. PATHo- disease
-log(y) science of
-ic/-al p.t.
(adj.)
dealing or concerned with disease

2. ODo- way, road
-meter instrument for measuring
(noun used as adj.)
device for measuring istance traveled

3. MICRo- small
NES- island
-ia area of
(noun)
a group of smallislands in the western Pacific

4. PETRo- rock
GLYPH- carving
(noun)
a carving or inscription on rock (usually prehistoric)

5. POLY- many
CHROM- color
(noun)
a combination of many colors

6. POLY- many
NES- island
-ian p.t.
(noun)
p.t. a group of islands in the Pacific east of Australia

7. DEMo- people
-graph writing
-er one who (Eng)
(noun)
one engaged in the statistical study of human population

8. PALEo- old
-graph writing
-ic/-alp.t.
(adj.)
p.t. the study of ancient writings and inscriptions

9. HIERo- holy
GLYPH- carving
-ic p.t.
(substantive, plural)
any writing that is difficult to read

10. a- not
(a) PHA- say, speak
(b) TAX- set/be in order
-sia state of
(noun)
(a) the loss or impairment of the power to use or understand words
(b) loss of normal coordination, especially of the voluntary movement of muscles

11. PSYCHo- mind
-metr(y) s.o. measuring
-ist one engaged in
(noun)
one skilled in the science of measuring mentaLatin processes or facts

12. THE- god
-ist one who believes in
-ic p.t.
(adj.)
concerning a believer in God

13. KINE- move
-tic p.t.
(adj.)
having to do with motion

14. ACR- first part of
ONYM- word
(noun)
a word formed from first part of words

15. syn- together, with
ESTHE- feeling
-sia state of
(noun)
process in which stimulation of one sense stimulates another

16. CHOREo- dance
-graphy art of writing
(noun)
the dancing composed and arranged for a stage performance

17. MORPHo- form, shape
-log(y) study of
-ic/-al p.t.
(adj.)
relating to the form and structure of plants

18. EROT- love, sex
-ic p.t.
(adj.)
concerning sexual passion or love

19. (a) COSMo- universe
(b) ASTRo- star
NAUT- sailor
(noun)
a pilot or member of a crew of a spacecraft

20. PATHo- disease
GEN- produce
-ic p.t.
(adj.)
disease-producing

 

*****Words in the following lists will appear on the Final . See the Diathesis of the Final (I.C.3a)*****

Words with Literary Origins (Part I, pp. 250-251)

1. catastrophe - "the outcome (usually death or ruin in a tragedy, usually a happy marriage in a comedy) of a literary or dramatic work, the denouement; a disaster"

2. elegaic - "in classical prosody, consisting of a dactylic hexameter couplet (dactylic: 3 syllables--1 long and 2 short; hexameter: a line consisting of six feet) often used in funerary verse; expressing sorrow"

3. catharsis - "the purging of an audience's emotions through a work of art (this is a figurative transfer of the original meaning, "purgation," from Greek katharos "pure, clean"); purification"

4. onomatopoeic - "p.t. the adaptation of a sound of a word to its meaning, for rhetorical effect; p.t. the use of a word whose sound suggests the sense"

5. panegyric - "a formal eulogy, a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing"

6. prosaic - "characteristic of prose (as opposed to poetry)"

7. parable - "a brief story used for teaching some moral lesson or attitude or a religious principle"

8. prosody - "the study or science of poetic meters and versification"; from pros- "in regard to" + OD- "song"

 

Analysis and Definition of Words (Part II, pp. 251-252)

1. ascetic: ASCE- exercise (from askein "to exercise") + -tic "pertaining to" = "refraining from pleasure and comforts; practicing strict self-denial as a measure of personal and, especially, spiritual discipline"

2. bucolic: BUCOL- "cowherd" (from boukolos "herdsman," from bous "cow") + -ic "pertaining to" = "pertaining to shepherds; relating to or typical of rural life"

3. cataclysmic: cata- "down" + CLYS- "to wash" (from klyzein "to wash") + -m "result of" + -ic "pertaining to" = "extremely sudden and violent; pertaining to a momentous and violent event marked by overwhelming upheaval and demolition"

4. cynosure: CYNOS- "dog" (from kynos, the genitive of the noun kyon "dog") + UR- "tail" (from oura "tail"), which combined into kynosoura (= "dog's tail") in Greek, and into cynosura in Latin. In Greek mythology, Cynosura, a nurse of Zeus and a nymph of Mount Ida, metamorphosed into Ursa Minor (Latin "smaller bear"), the constellation also referred to as Cynosure (OED 1596), a word that immediately took on figurative uses, one of which means "a center of attraction, interest, or attention" which is how it is used here.

5. didactic: DIDAC- "to teach" (from didaskein "to teach") + -tic "pertaining to" = "meant to instruct; intended to convey instruction and information as well as pleasure and entertainment"

6. hedonism: HEDON- "pleasure" (from hedone "pleasure") + -ism "belief in, practice of" = "the belief or doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life; devotion to pleasure as a way of life"

7. hegemony: HEGEMON- "leader" (from hegeisthai "to lead") + -y "state of" = "superior leadership or authority, especially of one nation over others"

8. idiosyncrasy (pl. -ies): IDIo- "one's own" + syn- "together" + CRA- "to mix" + -sy "act of, instance of" = "a characteristic peculiarity or habit, as of taste, behavior, or opinion" [Some dictionaries give the noun base CRAS- "a mixing," in which case the word should be analyzed as CRAS- + -y "act of."]

9. peripatetic: peri- "around" + PATE- "to walk (from patein "to walk") + -tic "pertaining to" = "traveling about or from place to place in connection with some occupation" [The general sense of this word derives from the adjective Peripatetic, "pertaining to the philosophy of Aristotle (in reference to his custom of pacing around while teaching)."]

10. polemic: POLEM- "war" (from polemos "war") + -ic "pertaining to" = (here, a substantive) "an argument or controversy; an aggressive attack on the opinions or principles of others"

 

Definition of Words (Part III, pp. 252-253)

1. adamant: "any extremely hard substance; any hard substance that is impenetrable"; from ADAMANT- (from the Greek noun adamas "the hardest metal") = a- "not" + DAMANT- (verbal adjective stem of daman "to conquer")

2. aphorism(s): "a concise statement expressing a general truth; a piece of practical wisdom"; = ap- "from" + HOROS- "boundary" + -ism "belief in," which combined in Greek to form aphorismos

3. axiom: "a statement widely accepted as being true on its own merit (without proof); a self-evident truth"; = AXIO- "worth, worthy" + -m "result of"

4. deleterious: "having a harmful effect; injurious"; from deleesthai ("to hurt") + -ous "pertaining to"

5. diatribe(s): "a harsh and bitter speech or writing, denunciation, invective, tirade"; = dia- "away" + TRIB- "wear"

6. empirical: "based on experiment and observation without regard for system and theory"; = em- "in" + PER- "experiment" + -ic "pertaining to" + -al "characteristic of"

7. epoch: "a time marked by an event that begins a new period or development, a period of time, an era; from epoche "a fixed point in time" = epi- "upon" + echein "to hold"

8. esoteric: "designed for or understood by a specially initiated few"; from ESOTER- "inner" (= comparative of eso "within")

9. ethereal: "lacking material substance, light, airy, delicate"; = aither "upper air" + -eal (variant of -al ) "p.t."

10. lethargy: "abnormal drowsiness; lack of energy"; from lethe "oblivion" + argos "lazy" (= a- "not" + ergon "work") + -y "quality of"

11. anodyne: "a medicine that relieves or lessens pain"; = an- "without" + odyne "pain"

12. paroxysm: "a sudden fit; an attack"; = para- "beside, beyond" + oxynein "to provoke, goad" (from oxys "sharp") + -m "result of"

13. pragmatic: "concerned with practical results or values, relating to matters of fact or practical affairs"; = PRAGMAT- (from pragma "deed, act") + -ic "pertaining to" [OR prattein "to do" + -ma "result of" + -tic "p.t."]

14. sardonic: "bitterly contemptuous, disdainfully humorous, derisively mocking"; = sardonios "p.t. bitter or scornful smiles or laughter" + -ic "p.t."

15. sycophantic(ally): "in the manner of a servile or self-seeking flatterer"; = sykophantes "informer, slanderer" + -tic "p.t." + -al "like" + -ly English adverb suffix

 

Definition of Greek Loan Words (pp. 254-256)

1. acme: from Greek akme ("point"): "highest point, the highest point or stage"

2. aroma: from Greek aroma ("spice"): "a pleasant, often spicy or sweet smell"

3. aura: from Greek aura ("breeze, breath"): "a distinctive atmosphere surrounding someone or something; a subtly pervasive quality seeming to emanate from a person, place or thing"

4. bathos: from Greek bathos ("depth"): "overdone or insincere pathos; sentimentalism"

5. colossus: from Latin colossus, from Greek kolossos ("gigantic"): "anything huge or gigantic"

6. cosmos: from New Latin cosmus, from Greek kosmos ("order, world, universe" [cf. COSM-universe]): "an orderly, harmonious, systematic universe"

7. criterion: from Greek kriterion, from krinein ("to judge" [cf. CRI- to judge]): "a standard for making a judgment or decision"

8. emporium: from Latin emporium, from Greek emporion ("market," from en- "on" + poros "voyage"): "a large store that sells a great variety of articles"

9. encomium(s): from Latin encomium, from Greek enkomion ("laudatory," from en- "in" + komos "revelry"): "glowing and elaborately enthusiastic praise"

10. enigma: from Latin aenigma, from Greek ainigma (from ainos "fable, riddle"): "a baffling or puzzling situation"

11. eon(s): from Latin aeon, from Greek aion ("lifetime, age"): "any very long period of time; in geologic terms, two or more eras (as Cenozoic, Mesozoic, etc.)"

12. hoi polloi: from Greek hoi polloi ("the many"): "the general populace, ordinary people, the masses"

13. iota: from Latin iota, from Greek iota (iota is the smallest letter in the Greek alphabet): "an infinitesimal part or amount; bit; jot; whit"

14. lexicon: from Greek lexikon, a substantive derived from lexis ("word"): "the vocabulary of a particular group"

15. miasma: from New Latin miasma, from Greek miasma ("pollution"): "a bad-smelling, perhaps poisonous, vapor rising from decaying matter on the earth"

16. nostalgia: from New Latin nostalgia, from Greek nostos ("homecoming") + ALG- "pain": "a longing or wistful yearning for things belonging to the past"

17. panacea: from Latin panacea, from Greek panakeia (from PAN- "all" + akos "cure, remedy"): "a remedy for all difficulties"

18. pathos: from Greek pathos ("suffering, experience, emotion" [cf. PATH- to suffer]): "a quality or element that arouses a feeling of pity, sadness, or compassion"

19. phalanx: from Latin phalanx, from Greek phalanx ("line of battle"): in a figurative sense (as here), "a number of persons united for a common purpose"

20. phenomenon (pl. -a): from Late Latin phaenomenon ("appearance"), from Greek phainomenon ("[something] appearing, apparent" [cf. PHA- "to show"]): "a fact or event that can be observed" [-a = Greek plural of -on]

21. plethora: from Late Latin plethora, from Greek plethora ("fullness"): "superabundance; excess; superfluity; oversupply"

22. prolegomenon: from prolegomenon ("anything said beforehand," = pro- "before" + legein "to say"): "preliminary material in a book; introduction, preface"

23. stigma: from Latin stigma, from Greek stigma ("mark, puncture"): "a mark of disgrace or discredit"

24. thesaurus (pl. -i): from Latin thesaurus, from Greek thesauros ("storehouse, treasure"): here, "any book filled with information" [-i = Latin plural of -us]

25. trauma: from Greek trauma ("a wound"): "an emotional shock which has a lasting effect on the mind; any abnormal physical or mental condition produced by shock or injury; also, any bodily injury or wound"