©Damen, 2014


Answers to Ayers, English Words from Latin and Greek Elements, 2nd Edition (1986).
Be sure to put answers in the correct format, as below.


Lesson 20 (Greek), Exercise III, p. 261

1. endocarditis: endo- "within" + CARD(I)- "heart" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of the endocardium (the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart)"

2. periostitis: peri- "around" + OST- "bone" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of the periosteum (the dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bones except at joints)"

3. osteoclast: OSTEo- "bone" + CLA- "to break" (from klastos "broken") + -st "that which does": (a) "one of the large multinuclear cells found in growing bone which absorb bony tissue"; (b) "an instrument for the surgical breaking of a bone to correct deformity"

4. sclerodermatous: SCLERo- "hard" + DERMAT- "skin" + -ous "like": "having a hard body covering, as plates or scales"

5. cytolysis: CYTo- "cell" + LY- "to loosen" + -sis "state of": "the destruction or disintegration of cells"

6. parenteral: par- "beside" + ENTER- "intestine" + -al "pertaining to": "not entering or passing through the intestines" (e.g. an intravenous injection provides parenteral nourishment)

7. exostosis: ex- "out" + OST- "bone" + -osis "diseased condition of": "a spur or bony growth on a bone or cartilage"

8. melanism: MELAN- "dark" + -ism "condition of": "a condition of having a high amount of dark pigment granules in the skin, hair, eyes, plumage, etc."

9. mycosis: MYC- "fungus" + -osis "diseased condition of": "the presence of fungus in or on any part of the body; also, the disease caused by this fungus"

10. hepatitis: HEPAT- "liver" + -itis "inflammatory disease of": "inflammation of the liver; also, a contagious viral disease characterized by such inflammation"

11. scleroid: SCLER- "hard" + -oid "like": "hard; indurated"

12. macrocyte: MACRo- "large" + CYT- "cell": "an abnormally large red corpuscle found in the blood, chiefly in anemias"

13. enteritis: ENTER- "intestines" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of the (usually small) intestines, often accompanied by diarrhea and fever"

14. cyanosis: CYAN- "dark blue" + -osis "diseased condition of": "a bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by lack of oxygen in the blood, associated with high altitudes, suffocation, shock, and some forms of heart disease"

15. cardiograph: CARDIo- "heart" + -graph "instrument for writing": "an instrument that registers graphically the movements of the heart" (often cross-referenced to electrocardiograph)

16. enarthrosis: en- "in" + ARTHR- "joint" + -osis "process of": in anatomy, "a ball-and-socket joint"

17. necrosis: NECR- "dead tissue" + -osis "diseased condition of": "usually, localized death of living body tissues, caused by a degenerative disease, lack of oxygen supply, infection, or destructive freezing or burning"

18. diathermy: dia- "through" + THERM- "heat" + -y "act of": "the production or generation of heat in body tissue by electric currents, for medical, therapeutic, or surgical purposes"

19. hemophilia: HEMo- "blood" + PHIL- in medicine, "tendency" + -ia "quality of": "sex-linked inherited disorder of the blood characterized by a tendency of the blood not to clot normally, resulting in difficulty in controlling hemorrhaging even after minor injuries"

20. embolism: em- "in" + BOL- "to throw" + -ism "condition of": "an obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot (called an embolus)"


Lesson 21 (Greek), Exercise II, p. 264

1. diuretic: from Latin diureticus, from Greek diouretikos, from di- "through" + UR- "urine" + -(e)tic "p.t.": as an adjective, "causing an increase in the flow of urine; as a noun, a drug that causes an increase in the flow of urine"

2. angioma: ANGI- "vessel, receptacle" + -oma "tumor": "a tumor produced chiefly by the enlargement of blood vessels or lymph vessels"

3. lipolysis: LIPo- "fat" + LY- "to loosen" + -sis "act of": "the hydrolysis of fat" (hydrolysis = HYDRo- "water" + LY- "to loosen" + -sis "act of": "a chemical process of decomposition involving the use of water"); lipolysis can also occur by the action of lipase [LIP- "fat" + -ase (a suffix used to form the names of enzymes): "an enzyme in the pancreatic and gastric juices that can change fats to fatty acids, glycerin, and sugar"])

4. acephalous: a- "without" + CEPHAL- "head" + -ous "like" (an acephalan = a headless mollusk): "headless; in zoology, lacking a distinct head, or having no part of the body specially systemized as the seat of the senses"

5. empyema: from New Latin empyema, from Greek, from em- "in, on" + PY- "pus" + -ma "result of": "a collection of pus in a body cavity, especially in the lungs, as in pneumonia (from Greek pnein to breathe)"

6. oolite: OO- "egg" + LITE- "stone": "a rock consisting of small round grains, usually of calcium carbonate, that resemble fish roe"

7. hydrocephalous: HYDRo- "water" + CEPHAL- "head" + -ous "p.t.": "relating to, characterized by, or affected with an abnormal increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid that has accumulated within the cranium, usually in infancy, causing abnormal enlargement of the head"

8. parotitis: par- "beside" + OT- "ear" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of the parotid gland; mumps" (The parotid glands, one in front of each ear, supply saliva to the mouth through the parotid ducts.)

9. phlebotomy: PHLEBo- "vein" + -tomy "surgical cutting of": "the letting of blood from a vein in the treatment of disease (also called venescetion = Latin vena "vein" + sectio "the act of cutting")

10. mastoidectomy: MAST- "breast" + -oid "like" + -ectomy "surgical removal of": "removal of the mastoid (=a nipple-shaped projection of bone behind the ear)"

11. enuresis: from New Latin enuresis = en- "in, into" + UR- "urine" + -sis "act of": "the inability to control urination; bed-wetting"

12. adenoma: ADEN- "gland" + -oma "tumor": "a benign tumor originating in a secretory gland; also, any tumor resembling a gland in structure"

13. phlebitis: PHLEB- "vein" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of a vein"

14. pyuria: PY- "pus" + UR- "urine" + -ia "condition of" (or the combining form -uria, "diseased condition of the urine"): "the presence of pus in the urine"

15. oogenesis: OO- "egg" + GENE- "originate" + -sis "result of": "the formation and development of an ovum (= Latin "egg")"

16. hysterectomy: HYSTER- "uterus" + -ectomy "surgical removal of": "surgical removal of the uterus"

17. angiologist: ANGIo- "vessel" + -log(y) "science of" + -ist "expert": "one who studies or is an expert in blood vessels and lymphatic vessels; also, one who engages in X-ray examination of blood vessels by injecting a radiopaque (= not transparent to X-rays) substance into the blood"

18. encephalitis: en- "in, within" + CEPHAL- "head" + -itis "inflammation": "inflammation of the encephalon (=the brain), caused by injury, poison, infection, etc."

19. pyorrhea: PYo- "pus" + -rrhea "discharge": "a disease in which pockets of pus form about the roots of the teeth, frequently causing the teeth to become loose (also called Riggs' disease, after John M. Riggs, an American dentist who lived from 1810 to 1885)"

20. polyuria: POLY- "much" + UR- "urine" + -ia "condition of" (or the combining form -uria, "diseased condition of the urine"): "the passing of an excessive quantity of urine, as in diabetes"


Lesson 22 (Greek), Exercise II, pp. 267-8

1. brachycephalic: BRACHY- "short" + CEPHAL- "head" + -ic "pertaining to": "having a breadth of head at least four-fifths as great as the length from front to back; short-headed or broad-headed with a cephalic index of over 80"

2. leucocytosis: LEUCo- "white" + CYT- "cell" + -osis "diseased condition of": "an increase in the number of leucocytes (= white blood cells)"

3. hemostat: HEMo- "blood" + STA- "to stop" + -t "that which": "a clamp that compresses the ends of small blood vessels in order to stop hemorrhage" (This is a back formation of the adjective hemostatic.)

4. tachylyte: TACHY- "swift" + LY- "to loosen" + -te "that which" (or the combining form -lite, "stone, rock, mineral"): "a black, glassy basalt of volcanic origin that is easily fusible (i.e. loosened)" (Also spelled tachylite.)

5. erythrocytometer: ERYTHRo- "red" + CYTo- "cell" + -meter "measure": "an instrument for counting red blood corpuscles"

6. stenosis: STEN- "narrow" + -osis "diseased condition of": "the contraction or constriction of a passage, duct, or canal"

7. hydrotherapy: HYDRo- "water" + -therapy "treatment by": "the scientific treatment of disease by means of water"

8. erythrism: ERYTHR- "red" + -ism "condition of": "a condition of abnormal redness, as a plumage, skin, or hair"

9. dolichocephal: DOLICHo- "long" + CEPHAL- "head" + -ic "p.t.": "having a relatively long head with a cephalic index of less than 75; having a breadth of head small in proportion to the length from front to back; having a breadth of skull less than four-fifths of the length from front to back"

10. pentamerous: PENTA- "five" + MER- "part" + -ous "p.t.": "consisting of or divided into five parts"

11. homeopathy: HOMEo- "same" + -pathy "treatment of disease by": "a method of treating disease by administering small doses of a remedy that would, in larger doses, produce symptoms of the disease in a healthy person"

12. arthromere: ARTHRo- "joint" + MER- "portion, part": "one of the divisions of the body of an articulate (= having joints) animal"

13. aneurism: an- "up" + EURYS- "wide" + -m "result of": "a permanent cardiac or arterial blood-filled dilation (= swelling), caused by pressure of the blood on a weakened spot"

14. tachometer: TACHo- "speed" + -meter "measure": in medicine, "an instrument for measuring or indicating the speed of the blood" (A similar instrument can measure the speed of a river, etc.; another such instrument measures the speed of rotation, as of a shaft or a wheel.)

15. physiotherapist: PHYSIo- "nature" + -therapy "treatment of" + -ist "one who": "one who treats disease or physical defects by physical and mechanical means (massage, regulated exercise, water, heat, electricity) rather than by drugs" (Dictionaries generally favor the more popular term physical therapy.)

16. osteophyte: OSTEo- "bone" + PHY- "to grow" + -te "that which": "a bony outgrowth"

17. chlorosis: CHLOR- "yellowish-green" + -osis "diseased condition of": "an iron-deficiency anemia in young girls at or about puberty, characterized by a yellowish-green complexion and irregular menstruation (also called greensickness); also in botany, designating blanched or yellow leaves owing to lack of chlorophyll"

18. isomerous: ISo- "equal" + MER- "part" + -ous "p.t.": "having an equal number of parts, markings, or ridges; in botany, of a flower, having the same number of members in each whorl"

19. idiopathic: IDIo- "one's own, peculiar" + -pathy "disease" + -ic "p.t.": "arising spontaneously or from an unknown cause"

20. urolith: URo- "urine" + LITH- "stone": "a calculus in the urinary tract" (a calculus is a concretion, usually of mineral salts that collect around organic matter, forming blockages such as gallstones or kidney stones)


Lesson 22 (Greek), Exercise IV, p. 268

1. a tumor composed of fatty tissue: lipoma (LIP- "fat" + -oma "tumor")

2. pain in a joint: arthralgia (ARTHR- "joint" + ALG- "pain" + -ia "state of")

3. narrowing of the heart: cardiostenosis (CARDIo- "heart" + STEN- "narrow" + -osis "diseased conditon of")

4. blueness of the extremities: acrocynosis (ACRo- "the extremities" + CYAN- "blue" + -osis "diseased condition of")

5. a fungus infection of the skin: dermatomycosis (DERMATo- "skin" + MYC- "fungus" + -osis "diseased condition of")

6. surgical incision into the liver: hepatotomy (HEPATo- "liver" + -tomy "surgical operation or cutting")

7. inflammation of the ear: otitis (OT- "ear" + -itis "inflammation of")

8. smallness of the heart: microcardia (MICRo- "small" + CARD- "heart" + -ia "state of")

9. condition of having a black tongue: melanoglossia (MELANo- "black" + GLOSS- "tongue" + -ia "state of")

10. the study of bones: osteology (OSTEo- "bone" + -logy "study of")