©Damen, 2014


Answers to Ayers, English Words from Latin and Greek Elements, 2nd Edition (1986).
Be sure to put answers in the correct format, as below.


Lesson 23 (Greek), Exercise II, p. 272

1. meningitis: MENING- "membrane" + -itis "inflammation of": "an infectious and sometimes fatal disease characterized by inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain or spinal cord"

2. exophthalmic: ex- "out" + OPHTHALM- "eye" + -ic "pertaining to": "characterized by an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball from the orbit and caused by disease or suffocation"

3. platyrrhinian: PLATY- "flat" + RRHIN- "nose" + -ian "pertaining to": "having a broad, flat nose"

4. uremia: UR- "urine" + -emia "condition of the blood": "an abnormal condition resulting from an accumulation in the blood of waste products that are normally disposed of through the urine"

5. neurasthenia: NEUR- "nerve" + a- "without" + STHEN- "strength" + -ia "state of": "a neurosis accompanied by various physical ailments (as headaches, disorders in digestion or circulation, other pains) with no discernible organic cause, and characterized by impaired functioning of interpersonal relationships, fatigue, depression, and feelings of inadequacy"

6. atony: a- "without" + TON- "tension" + -y "state of": "lack of muscular tone, especially in a contractile organ, enervation, debility; also, in phonetics, lack of stress" (contractile here means capable of contracting, as a muscle.)

7. ophthalmoscope: OPHTHALMo- "eye" + -scope "instrument for viewing": "an instrument for examing the interior of the eye or the retina"

8. hemiplegia: HEMI- "half" + PLEG- "paralysis" + -ia "state of": "paralysis of only one side of the body resulting from injury to the motor centers of the brain"

9. cyclothymia: CYCLo- "circle, wheel" + THYM- "mind" + -ia "state of, condition of": "alternation of lively and depressed moods"

10. rhinoscope: RHINo- "nose" + -scope "instrument for viewing": "an instrument for examining the nasal passages"

11. calisthenics: CALi- "beauty" + STHEN- "strength" + -ics "the art of": "the practice or art of performing systematic rhythmic exercises for health, strength, and grace" (also spelled callisthenics)

12. myocarditis: MYo- "muscle" + CARD- "heart" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of the muscular part of the heart (the myocardium)" (myocardium is the middle muscular layer of the heart)

13. schizophrenia: SCHIZo- "split" + PHREN- "mind" + -ia "state of": "a psychotic disorder in which the patient dissociates himself from his environment and deteriorates in character and personality, expressed as a disorder of thought, feeling, and conduct; also, the condition of having or showing inconsistent or contradictory qualities; a split personality"

14. psychosomatic: PSYCHo- "mind" + SOMAT- "body" + -ic "pertaining to": "having to do with the interaction and interdependence of bodily disorders and mental disturbances; or, noting a physical disorder caused by or influenced by an emotional state (RHD)"

15. decahedron: DECA- "ten" + -hedron "solid figure with a (specified) number of faces": "a solid figure having 10 faces"

16. neurologist: NEURo- "nerve" + -log(y) "science of" + -ist "one who": "one who studies or is a specialist in the nervous system and its diseases"

17. osteomyelitis: OSTEo- "bone" + MYEL- "bone marrow" + -itis "inflammation of": "inflammation of the bone and bone marrow"

18. isotonic: ISo- "equal" + TON- "tone" + -ic "pertaining to": in physical chemistry, "pertaining to solutions that exhibit equal osmotic pressure (also called isosmotic)"; in physiology, "pertaining to a solution containing the same salt concentration as in mammalian blood, or pertaining to the contraction of a muscle when under constant tension"; in music, "characterized by equal tones"

19. pyemia: PY- "pus" + - emia "condition of the blood": "a form of blood poisoning caused by pus-producing bacteria (microorganisms) in the bloodstream accompanied by multiple abscesses in different parts of the body; or (in WNCD) septicemia (= invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms) caused by pus-forming bacteria, etc."

20. catatonic: cata- "against" + TON- "tension, tone" + -ic "pertaining to": "pertaining to catatonia, which is a condition associated with schizophrenia, characterized by mental stupor and muscular rigidity, and often alternates with sudden outbursts, seizures of panic, or hallucinations (WBD); called catalepsy (cf. LEP- "take, seize") in WNCD"


Lesson 24 (Greek), Exercise II, p. 275

1. pericardium: peri- "around" + CARD- "heart" + -ium "lining": "the membranous sac enclosing the heart"

2. syndrome: syn- "together" + DROM- "a running": "a group of signs and symptoms that occur together as characteristic of a disease or abnormality, or, in a modern transferred sense, of a type of behavior"

3. anthropophagous: ANTHROPo- "human being" + PHAG- "to eat" + -ous "inclined to": "feeding on human flesh; cannibalistic"

4. protoplasm: PROTo- "first" + PLAS- "to form" + -m "result of": "the living substance of all plant and animal cells; a typically translucent, colorless, semifluid, complex substance regarded as the physical basis of life, having the ability to sense and conduct stimuli and to metabolize"

5. anastomosis: ana- "back" + STOM- "mouth" + -osis "act of, process of": "the union of parts or branches (as of rivers, blood vessels, or leaf veins) so as to communicate"

6. erythroblast: ERYTHRo- "red" + BLAST- "embryonic cell": "a nucleated cell, found in bone marrow, from which red corpuscles develop"

7. syndactyl: syn- "together" + DACTYL- "finger or toe": as an adjective, "having certain digits formed together; as a noun, "a syndactyl animal"

8. ichthyosis: ICHTHY- "fish" + -osis "diseased conditon of": "a disease in which the skin becomes dry and flakes off in large, fishlike scales or plates; also called fishskin disease"

9. phytophagous: PHYTo- "plant" (cf. PHY- "to grow") + PHAG- "to eat" + -ous "inclined to": "feeding on plants; herbivorous"

10. neuropterous: NEURo- "nerve" + PTER- "wing" + -ous "pertaining to": "pertaining to the order (Neuroptera) of carnivorous insects which have membranous wings (as the lacewings and ant lions)"

11. micrococcus: MICRo- "small" + COCCUS- "spherical bacterium": "any of certain disease-causing or fermentation-producing spherical or egg-shaped bacteria"

12. anadromous: ana- "up" + DROM- "running" + -ous "pertaining to": "of fish like salmon and shad, going up rivers from the sea to spawn" (opposite of catadromous)

13. ornithology: ORNITHo- "bird" + -logy "science or study of": "the branch of zoology that deals with the study of birds"

14. osteoplasty: OSTEo- "bone" + PLAST- "to form" + -y "act of": "the surgical replacement of lost or defective bone"

15. orthopterous: ORTHo- "straight" + PTER - "wing" + -ous "pertaining to": "pertaining to the order (Orthoptera) of insects which have hard, narrow forewings and longitudinally folded, membranous hindwings (as crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches)"

16. polydactylism: POLY- "many" + DACTYL- "finger, toe" + -ism "condition of": "the state or condition of having more than the normal number of fingers or toes"

17. histology: HISTo- "tissue" + -logy "science or study of": "the branch of anatomy that deals with the microscopic structure of plant and animal tissue"

18. phagocyte: PHAGo- "to eat" + CYT- "cell": "a cell occurring in body fluids and tissues that is capable of absorbing and destroying foreign matter or harmful disease-producing material"

19. chiropter: CHIRo- "hand" + PTER- "wing": "any animal of the order (Chiroptera) of mammals having forelimbs that are modified as wings, e.g. the bat"

20. epigastrium: epi- "over" + GASTR- "stomach" + -ium "region": "the part of the abdomen lying over the stomach"

21. pterodactyl: PTERo- "wing" + DACTYL- "finger, toe": "belonging to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, any animal of the order (Pterosauria) of extinct flying reptiles having a featherless membrane stretching from the elongated fourth digit of each foreleg to the body"

22. osteoblast: OSTEo- "bone" + BLAST- "embryonic cell": "a bone-forming cell"

23. ichthology: ICHTHYo- "fish" + -logy "science or study of": "the branch of zoology that deals with the science and study of fish"

24. neoplasm: NEo- "new" + PLAS- "to form" + -m "result of": "a new, abnormal growth of tissue (such as a tumor) serving no physilogic function"

25. hemolysin: HEMo- "blood" + lys- "destroying" (cf. LY- "to loosen") + -in "chemical substance": "a substance in the blood that destroys erythrocytes (= red blood cells); it may take the form of antibodies or material contained in bacterial toxins and snake venom"


Lesson 25 (Greek), Exercise II, pp. 279-280

1. perianth: peri- "around" + ANTH- "flower": "the external envelope of a flower, including the calyx (= the outer leaves of the unopened bud) and the corolla (= the petals of the flower)"

2. schizocarpous: SCHIZo- "to split" + CARP- "fruit" + -ous "like": "of or like any dry fruit that divides, when ripe, into two or more one-seeded seed vessels that do not split open, as in the carrot and celery"

3. phyllopod: PHYLLo- "leaf" + POD- "foot": as an adjective, "of or belonging to the group of small crustaceans with four or more pairs of leaflike appendages which function as both swimming apparatuses and gills"; as a noun, "such a crustacean"

4. gonidium: GON- "reproductive" + -idium "little": "a reproductive cell produced asexually in algae (as a tetraspore or zoospore); also, a green chlorophyll-bearing cell within the thallus (= plant body) of lichens"

5. xylotomous: XYLo- "wood" + TOM- "to cut" + -ous "inclined to, practicing": "of certain insects, able to bore into or cut wood"

6. actinomorphic: ACTINo- "radiating structure" + MORPH- "form" + -ic "pertaining to": "having a radial symmetry and capable of division into symmetrical halves by any longitudinal plane passing through the axis"

7. carpophagous: CARPo- "fruit" + PHAG- "to eat" + -ous "inclined to": "fruit-eating"

8. prothrombin: pro- "before" + THROMB- "clot" + -in "chemical substance": "a plasma protein produced in the liver and converted into thrombin (= the blood-clotting agent); also called thrombogen"

9. heterophyllous: HETERo- "different" + PHYLL- "leaf" + -ous "inclined to": "bearing different kinds of leaves on the same plant"

10. xylophagous: XYLo- "wood" + PHAG- "to eat" + -ous "inclined to": "feeding on wood (as some insect larvae) or boring into wood (as some mollusks and crustaceans)"

11. toxemia: TOX- "poison" + -emia "condition of the blood": "blood-poisoning caused by pathogenic bacteria entering the bloodstream or by ingested food contaminated by poison"

12. oogonium: OO- "egg" + GON- "generative" + -ium "little": in biology, "a primitive germ cell that divides and give rise to oocytes (= female germ cells, called ova, before maturation)"; in botany, "the female reproductive organ in certain bacteria, algae, and fungi"

13. xanthophyll: XANTHo- "yellow" + PHYLL- "leaf": "a yellow pigment present in green leaves and plants"

14. monocarpic: MONo- "one" + CARP- "fruit" + -ic "pertaining to": "pertaining to a plant that produces fruit only once during its lifetime"

15.ootheca: OO- "egg" + THECA- "case": "a firm-walled egg case of certain mollusks and insects (as a cockroach or mantis)"

16. thrombosis: THROMB- "clot" + -osis "diseased condition of": "coagulation of blood (= a blood clot) in a blood vessel or the heart"

17. anthocyanin: ANTHo- "flower" + CYAN- "dark blue" + -in "chemical substance": "a pigment in the cell sap of plants that produces the red, blue, and lavender colors in flowers, leaves, roots, or fruits"

18. acrocarpous: ACRo- "highest, the extremities" + CARP- "fruit" + -ous "inclined to": "producing fruit at the top or at the end of the main stem (as in certain mosses)"

19. pseudopodium: PSEUDo- "false" + POD- "foot" + -ium "little": "the temporary protrusion of the protoplasm of a cell that serves as a means of locomotion and a food-gathering function; also, (in WBD) the posterior extremity of a rotifer (=a microscopic water animal), serving chiefly as a swimming organ; also, (in WNCD) a slender leafless branch of the gametophyte in various mosses that often bears gemmae (= asexual reproductive bodies that become detached from a parent plant). (Also called pseudopod and pseudopode)"

20. exanthema: ex- "out" + ANTH- "flower" + -ema "result": "an eruptive disease of the skin (as measles); also its eruption"

21. dendrite: DENDR- "treelike structure" + -ite "one connected with": in biology, "the branching part at the receiving end of a nerve cell (also called a dendron); in geology, "a stone or mineral with branching, treelike markings caused by crystallization of foreign minerals; also, such a marking"

22. toxicology: TOX- "poison" + -ic "pertaining to" + -ology "science of": "a science that deals with poisons and their effects, antidotes, etc., in clinical, industrial, legal, and other environments and situations"

23. phyllotaxy: PHYLLo- "leaf" + TAX- "to arrange" + -y "state of": "the arrangement of leaves on a stem in relation to one another; also, the study of this arrangement and the laws that govern it"

24. nephridium: NEPHR- "kidney" + -idium "little": "a primitive excretory organ in some invertebrates and lower vertebrates (as mollusks, some annelid worms, and brachiopods)"


Lesson 25 (Greek), Exercise IV, p. 280

1. paralysis of the tongue: glossoplegia (GLOSSo- "tongue" + PLEG- "paralysis" + -ia "state of")

2. having hidden flowers: cryptanthous (CRYPT- "hidden" + ANTH- "flower" + -ous "characterized by")

3. eating only one thing: monophagous (MONO- "one" + PHAG- "to eat" + -ous "inclined to")

4. pertaining to the formation of bone: osteoplastic/osteogenic (OSTEo- "bone" + PLAST- "to form"/GEN- "to produce" + -ic "pertaining to")

5. having small wings: micropterous (MICRo- "small" + PTER- "wing" + -ous "characterized by")

6. fear of flowers: anthophobia (ANTHo- "flower" + -phobia "fear of")

7. with winged fruit: pterocarpous (PTERo- "wing" + CARP- "fruit" + -ous "characterized by") [This is a genus of tropical timber trees belonging to the family leguminosae.]

8. bearing leaves: phyllophorous (PHYLLo- "leaf" + PHOR- "to bear" + -ous "inclined to")

9. deficient hearing: hypacusia (hyp- "less than normal" + ACU- "to hear" + -sia "result of, state of")

10. inflammation of the nerve of the eye: ophthalmoneuritis (OPHTHALMo- "eye" + NEUR- "nerve" + -itis "inflammation of")