©Damen, 2014

LATIN AND GREEK ELEMENTS IN ENGLISH

Answers to Ayers, English Words from Latin and Greek Elements, 2nd Edition (1986).
Be sure to put answers in the correct format, as below.

 

Introduction, pp. 13-14

I.

Hindi(1), Russian(4) and Portuguese (6) are Indo-European. Hungarian is Ural-Altaic, Korean belongs to a separate language group (related to Japanese) and Arabic is Semitic.

 

II.

1. Bulgarian = Balto-Slavic (East)
2. Romanian = Italic (West)
3. Sanskrit = Indo-Iranian (East)
4. Spanish = Italic (West)
5. Greek = Hellenic (West)
6. Welsh = Celtic (West)
7. Swedish = Teutonic (West)

 

III.

1. almanac: (Spanish-)Arabic; Late Greek (al-manac "the-calendar") [14th c. annual table: astronomical data/computations, poss. from late Gk. (Eusebius almenikhiaka); first attested in midLat > It. almanaco > Fr. almanach]
2. bizarre: Basque; French; Italian [Basque bizar "beard" > Fr/It bizarro "moustached man, man of spirit, handsome, brave" > Eng "wearing a moustache/beard")
3. boomerang: Australian native dialect (New South Wales) [bumarin/wo-mur-rang "type(s) of clubs"]
4. chair: Greek; Latin [Gk. kathedra/Lat. cathedra "sit-down, seat" >OF chaiere "bishop's throne"]
5. cherub: Hebrew, "winged heavenly being" > Lat/Fr [poss. from Akkadian karubu "propitious, gracious"]
6. chocolate: Aztec (language = Nahuatl) [confusion of chocolatl "food from cacao seeds and cacaua-atl "drink, cacao-water"]
7. crag: Celtic (through Mid. Eng./Mid. Dutch), "rock"
8. dollar: Low German/Dutch [joachims/taler, "Joachim's valley" = source of silver for coins, in Bohemia; > clipped to taler, 16th c.; later t > d, Low Germ. daler]
9. galore: Irish (Gaelic), "enough, sufficent"; popularized by W. Scott
10. geyser: (Old) Icelandic; Old Norse ["gush," rel. to "gush"]
11. gingham: Malay (Indonesian language of Malay peninsula) ["striped linen/cotton cloth"; ginggang "striped"]
12. hominy: Algonkian/Algonquian (= N Am. Indian lang.) ["parched corn" < appuminneonash = appwoon "he bakes" + minneash "grain"]
13. horde: Turkic/Turkish; Mongolian [ordi/ordu "camp" > It. orda]
14. hurricane: Arawak/Arawakan (lang. of Brazil and West Indies); Taino (= branch of Arawak) [haurachana > Sp. huracan > Eng. hurricane, prob. influenced by "hurry" in the sense of "disturb"]
15. julep: Persian [gul-ab "rose-water, sweet liquor"]
16. khaki: Persian [khak "dust" > khaki "dusty, dust-colored (cloth)," esp. used by Brit. troops in the Indian Mutiny]
17. magazine: Arabic [makhazan "storehouse, granary" > Eng. periodical, 1731, "The Gentleman's Magazine"]
18. mammouth: Russian; Tatar [mammot/mamont, -on- misread for -ou-; ?< mama "earth," because the animal supposedly burrowed]
19. paradise: Iranian; Persian [paradeisos "garden": Xenophon, "parks (of Persian kings)"; < Old Persian, pairidaeza "enclosure"]
20. robot: Czech [robota "compulsory service"; robotnik "serf"; cf. Germ. arbeit]
21. sapphire: Sanskrit [saniprija "dear to the planet Saturn") > Hebrew sappir > Gk. sappheiros]
22. sherbet: Arabic (shariba "drink", cf. syrup > 17th c. "oriental drink" > 19th c. "powder for making effervescing drink"]
23. swastika: Sanskrit [svasti "fortune" < su- + -asti, "well-being"]
24. tungsten: Swedish [tung "heavy" + sten "stone"]

 

IV.

1. apricot: Lat. praecoquis [< prae-cox (persicum) "early-ripening (peach)"] > late Gk. praikokion > Ar. al-barquq > It. albercocco/Port. albricoque > Eng. abrecock (18th c.)
2. bishop: Gk. episcopos "overseer" > vulg.Lat. ebiscopus > OE bisceop > ME bisshop
3. butter: Gk. boutyron (= bou-tyron "cow-cheese") > Lat butyrium > WGerm/OE butere > ME boter (spelled variously)
4. car: Celtic origin? > Lat. carrus "a four-wheeled cart" > late Lat. carra > AN carre > ME carre
5. chemist: Gk. chyma "ingot" [< chein "to pour"] > Gk. chymeia "alloying of metal" > Ar. al-kimiya "the-" > MedLat. alchimia "alchemy" > NewLat chimista "one who -"
6. orange: Sanskr. naranga > Pers. narang > Ar. naranj > It. narancia/Sp. naranja > OF un/norenge, then misdivided un/orenge > ME orange