**Applet Instructions**

Illustrated example.

- Describe what you see in the table when Simpson's Paradox is observed.
- Describe what you see in the plot when Simpson's Paradox is observed.
- When adjusting the sliders, at what point does Simpson's Paradox appear?
- What do the conditions you observe in the applet tell you about what's going on in the data when Simpsonâ€™s Paradox occurs?

Source: Wainer, H. (2002) The BK plot: Making Simpson's Paradox Clear to the Masses.

- Comparison groups: Treatments A and B
- Outcome variable: Percent Surviving
- Lurking variable: Percent women

Source: Hammel, W., Bickel, P., and O'Connell, J.W. (1975) Is There a Sex Bias in Graduate Admissions?

- Comparison groups: Male and Female Applicants
- Outcome variable: Percent admitted
- Lurking variable: Acceptance rate of desired major.

Florida Death Penalty Data:

Source: Radelet, M. L. and Pierce, G. L. (1991).

- Comparison groups: Black and White defendants in murder trials
- Outcome variable: Percent receiving death penalty
- Lurking variable: Race of victim

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Airlines Data:

Source: Moore, McCabe, Craig.

- Comparison groups: Alaska and America West Airlines
- Outcome variable: Percent of flights delayed
- Lurking variable: Flight origination

1964 Civil Rights Act Data:

Source: Simpson's Paradox. Wikipedia.

- Comparison groups: Democrats and Republicans
- Outcome variable: Percent in favor
- Lurking variable: Origin of representative (Northern v. southern)

20 Year Smoker Survival:

Source: Vanderpump, M.P.J., Tunbridge, W.M.G., French, J.M., Appleton, D., Bates, D., Clark, F., Grimley Evans, J. Rodgers, H. Tunbridge F., and Young, E.T. (1996) The Development of Ischemic Heart Disease in Relation to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in a 20-Year Follow-up Study of an English Community

- Comparison groups: Smokers and non-smokers
- Outcome variable: Percent alive at 20 year follow-up
- Lurking variable: Age of subject (under 65 v. 65 and older)

House pet data:

Source: Schneiter (2012) Hypothetical study data.

- Comparison groups: Dogs and cats
- Outcome variable: Percent kept in the house
- Lurking variable: Size of pet (small v. large)

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