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Chapter 6

RULE 1: The base of esse in the future and imperfect tenses is er-.

RULE 2: pot- + sum/esse = "to be able, can"

RULE 3: -t + s- = -ss-

I. Grammar

Future and Imperfect Forms of Sum. The future and imperfect forms of sum must be memorized. As we saw in the last chapter (see above), the imperfect tense shows continuous, repeated, in-progress or habitual action in the past and can be rendered in English several ways: "was/were X-ing", "used to X", "kept (on) X-ing," "often/usually X-ed" and even just "X-ed."

Possum. The Latin verb possum is a compound of the prefix pot- added onto the verb sum, es, est, etc. Note that -t- plus -s- becomes -ss-, seen, for instance, in the infinitiveposse, a conflated form of pot + esse. Possum means literally "I am able", the best translation to use since this translation requires a complementary infinitive in English, just as possum does in Latin. The alternate translation "I can" can be more confusing, since "can" in English is a modal verb and does not require a complementary infinitive. All in all, it's best to use "be able" rather than "can" when translating possum either into English or into Latin.

II. Vocabulary

liber: The adjective lîber ("free") does not contract (cf. liberty), but the noun liber ("book") does (cf. library).

Graecus: As listed by Wheelock here, Graecus is a substantive (noun).

vester: Like noster, this adjective contracts.

-que: Like -ne, an enclitic. Note the pattern: X et Y et Z = X Yque Zque.

ubi: The correlative (answer) of ubi ("where") is ibi ("there," also in this chapter's vocabulary). The Romans conceived the world in four dimensions, such that a question with ubi implied to them both "at what place" and "at what time." From an English speaker's perspective, then, it appears that ubi means two things: "when" and "where."

insidiae: A plural noun in Latin corresponding to a singular one in English is a difference seen more than once. The Romans frequently expressed abstract concepts in the plural, cf. animi (Chapter 5), whereas we use the singular. Here, insidiae (literally, "sittings on") corresponds to treachery, presumably because treacherous people "sat in" wait to ambush their foes.

III. Sentences

Practice and Review

7. sapientiae is a partitive genitive.

11. Remember to put igitur in the postpositive position.

12. "Men" can be translated using vir or a masculine substantive.

14. Make sure to put -que on the back of the second noun.

IV. Test 1: Review

Here is an example of Test 1 (plus answers). You should attempt the test as soon as you've finished Chapter 6. Please feel free to ask any questions you have concerning the material or the directions. You might also try to do the self-check exercises in the back of Wheelock (pp. 287-91, 324-8) as another way of studying for the test. Please note that sample tests always reflect exactly the breakdown of points on the various sections of the test. In other words, if 30 points are given for a section on the sample test, the section will count 30 points on the test itself.

Test 1: Review


I. Translate the following verbs. (20 pts.)

1. manebitis __________________________________________________________________
2. potest __________________________________________________________________
3. eramus __________________________________________________________________
4. habere __________________________________________________________________
5. cogitate __________________________________________________________________
6. tolerabant __________________________________________________________________
7. remanent __________________________________________________________________
8. potero __________________________________________________________________
9. vocabis __________________________________________________________________
10. esse __________________________________________________________________

II. Decline the noun oculus, and translate the forms according to their case and number. (20 pts.)

NOM ____________________________ _______________________________________
GEN ____________________________ _______________________________________
DAT ____________________________ _______________________________________
ACC ____________________________ _______________________________________
ABL ____________________________ _______________________________________
NOM ____________________________ _______________________________________
GEN ____________________________ _______________________________________
DAT ____________________________ _______________________________________
ACC ____________________________ _______________________________________
ABL ____________________________ _______________________________________

III. Answer the grammar questions pertaining to the underlined words in the following sentences and then translate the sentences into English. (60 pts.)

1. Si officia me vocant, amice, mea puella me vocat de officiis meis.



What case is officia and why (i.e. how does it function in the sentence)? __________________________________________________
What case is amice and why? __________________________________________________
What case is officiis and why? __________________________________________________

2. Multi erunt liberi propter animos nostros.



What case is Multi and why? __________________________________________________
What case is liberi and why? __________________________________________________
What case is animos and why? __________________________________________________

3. Da pecuniam populo in patria* tua*.



What mood is Da and why? __________________________________________________
What case is populo and why? __________________________________________________
What case is patria* and why? __________________________________________________

4. Pauci Graeci mala multa in pecunia* otioque videre poterant.



What case is mala and why? __________________________________________________
What case is otio and why? __________________________________________________
What mood is videre and why? __________________________________________________



I. Verbs.

1. manebitis: you (y'all) will remain 6. tolerabant: they were enduring
2. potest: he/she/it is able 7. remanent: they remain
3. eramus: we were 8. potero: I will be able
4. habere: to have 9. vocabis: you will call
5. cogitate: think! (pl.) 10. esse: to be

II Noun.

NOM oculus: the eye (subject) oculi: the eyes (subject)
GEN oculi: of the eye oculorum: of the eyes
DAT oculo: to/for the eye oculis: to/for the eyes
ACC oculum: the eye (direct object) oculos: the eyes (direct object)
ABL oculo: by/with/from the eye oculis: by/with/from the eyes

III. Sentences.

1. If duties call me, friend, my girlfriend calls me from my duties.
officia: nominative, subject
amice: vocative, direct address
officiis: ablative, object of the preposition de

2. Many men will be free because of our courage.
Multi: nominative, subject
liberi: nominative, predicate adjective
animos: accusative, object of the preposition propter

3. Give money to the people in your homeland!
Da: imperative, direct command
populo: dative, indirect object
patria*: ablative, object of the preposition in

4. Few Greeks were able to see (OR could see) the many evils (OR many evil things) in money and leisure.
mala: accusative, direct object
otio: ablative, object of the preposition in
videre: infinitive, complementary (with possunt)


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