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Chapter 27

RULE 1: Adjective bases ending in -l- and -(e)r- form superlatives ending in -limus and -rimus, respectively.


I. Grammar

This is largely a chapter of memorization: (1) two rules for forming "irregular" superlatives (those ending in -limus and -rimus); and (2) seven adjectives which exhibit "irregular comparison" (Wheelock, p. 128). While memorizing the irregular forms, it's important that you focus also on reviewing the constructions introduced in Chapters 23-26. If we did not have time in the last chapter to do the worksheet reviewing those constructions, click here for that worksheet.

There is one especially important irregularity to note here. The singular of plus operates as a (neuter) noun and takes a partitive genitive after it (cf. satis); conversely, the plural (plures/plura) functions as an adjective.


II. Vocabulary

acer: This adjective contracts (base = acr-). Note the special feminine form acris.

pulcher: Contracts to pulchr-.

III. Review for Test 1

Test 1: Review

____________________________________
NOMEN TUUM

I. VERB FORMS. Translate the following verb forms into English. Give all pertinent information. [If the form does not have case, number or gender, leave those spaces blank.] (30 pts.)

TENSE
VOICE
CASE
NUMBER
GENDER
 

1. peti
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

2. relictâ
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

3. versurum esse
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

4. putatas esse
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

5. credidi
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

6. ridenda
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

7. ostendisse
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

8. nescientes
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

9. quaesiturorum
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________

10. pellere
_________
_________ _________ _________ _________
 
Translation: _________________________________________________________________


II. CONSTRUCTIONS. Translate the following phrases or sentences into English. Be sure that your translation properly reflects the tense and voice of the verb forms. (20 pts.)


1. servo a ducibus expulso


2. adulescentibus veritatem audientibus


3. cupiditas bono non accipienda est


4. quoque cive


5. beatior deo

 

III. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Supply the proper positive, comparative and superlative forms of adjectives below. Give ONLY masculine nominative singular forms. (10 pts.)

 
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE

1.
_________________
_____________________
pessimus

2.
magnus
______________________
_____________________

3.
_________________
______________________
supremus

4.
_________________
similior
_____________________

5.
pulcher
______________________
_____________________


IV. SENTENCES. Translate the following sentences into lucid English which closely reflects the grammar of the Latin sentences. Answer the grammar questions appended. (40 pts.)

1. Negaverunt se dona daturos esse alicui quem nesciverunt.

 

What case is se and why?

_____________________________________________________
What case is dona and why? _____________________________________________________
What case is quem and why? _____________________________________________________


2. Hostibus eo die victis, orator populo narravit timorem servitutis expulsum esse.

 

What case is Hostibus and why? __________________________________________________
What case is die and why? __________________________________________________
What case is populo and why? __________________________________________________


3. Primus credidit solem esse deum maiorem aliis dis.

 

 

What mood is esse and why? __________________________________________________
What case is deum and why? __________________________________________________
What case is dis and why? __________________________________________________


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ANSWERS

I. VERB FORMS
1. peti: present passive (infinitive, hence no case, number or gender); "to be sought"
2. relictâ: perfect passive (participle), ablative singular feminine; "(by/with/from her) having been left behind"
3. versurum esse: future active (infinitive), nominative singular neuter or accusative singular masculine/neuter; "(him/it) to be about to turn"
4. putatas esse: perfect passive (infinitive), accusative plural feminine; "(them = women) to have been thought"
5. credidi: perfect active (indicative!, hence no case or gender, but the number is (first person) singular); "I have believed"
6. ridenda: future passive (participle), nominative singular feminine OR neuter plural nominative/accusative; "(she/things) about to be laughed at"
7. ostendisse: perfect active (infinitive, hence no case, number or gender); "to have shown"
8. nescientes: present active (participle), nominative/accusative plural masculine/feminine; "(they = men/women) not knowing"
9. quaesiturorum: future active (participle), genitive plural masculine/neuter; "(of them = men/things) about to seek"
10. pellere: present active (infinitive, hence no case, number or gender); "to drive out"


II. CONSTRUCTIONS
1. With the servant having been expelled by the leaders (less literally = when the servant was/had been expelled by the leaders, . . .)
2. With the young men hearing the truth (= when the young men hear/d the truth,)
3. Desire must not be accepted by a good man (= dative of agent with passive periphrastic). [This is a full sentence.]
4. With each man (being) a citizen (= since/although each man is/was a citizen,)
5. More blessed than a god (= ablative of comparison)

III. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
1. MALUS PEIOR pessimus
2. magnus MAIOR MAXIMUS
3. SUPERUS SUPERIOR supremus
4. SIMILIS similior SIMILLIMUS
5. pulcher PULCHRIOR PULCHERRIMUS


IV. SENTENCES
1. They said that they (themselves) would not give gifts to anyone whom they did not know.
se: Accusative, Subject of Indirect Statement
dona: Accusative, Direct Object in Indirect Statement
quem: Accusative, Direct Object in Relative Clause

2. With the enemy having been conquered on that day (OR since the enemy had been conquered on that day), the orator explained to the people that the fear of slavery had been driven out.
Hostibus: Ablative, Subject of the Ablative Absolute
die: Ablative of (Point in) Time
populo: Dative, Indirect Object

3. He first believed that the sun was a god greater than the other gods.
esse: Infinitive, Verb of Indirect Statement
deum: Accusative, Predicate in Indirect Statement
dis (plural of deus, see Wheelock p.57): Ablative of Comparison

 

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