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Chapter 32
RULE 1: Adverb endings: 1) positive = -ê (I/II), -iter (III);
2) comparative = -ius;
3) superlative = -issimê (irregular forms = -rimê, -limê).

I. Grammar

A. Adverbs

Lacking case endings, Latin adverbs are generally easier to learn than nouns and adjectives. The only endings to be memorized are cited above in Rule 1, though it's important to bear in mind that the "irregular" forms covered in Chapter 27 (e.g. superlatives ending in -rimus and -limus and comparatives like plus and melior) apply to adverbs as well.

B. Volo: You are responsible for knowing malo and nolo also (see Wheelock, pp.392-4).

Click here for a review sheet covering verb forms (Chapters 28-32).

II. Vocabulary

divitiae: The noun is plural, cf. English riches.

honor: This noun means "public office" (cf. cursus honorum, "the path of public offices" followed by Roman politicians as they rose to the consulship). From that sense came the meaning "honor," the acclaim often concomitant with holding public office.

MALO, MALLE, MALUI: "prefer, incline toward"; add this verb to your vocabulary.

custodia: In the plural, it means "guards."

lex: : "the word for the single ordinances the collection of which constitutes ius" (Palmer, The Latin Language, 25-6) .

par: It is a third-declension adjective, therefore i-stem (ablative singular pari, neuter nominative/accusative plural paria, genitive plural parium).

prohibeo: = pro- ("in front") + habeo ("hold, keep"). Note that prohibeo takes the accusative + infinitive to mean "prevent someone (accusative) from doing something (infinitive)" (see Wheelock, p.153, note 6).

III. Review for Test 2

Test 2: Review


I. VERB FORMS. Translate the following verb forms into English. Identify subjunctives by putting an "S" to the left of the form. (30 pts.)

1. nolebam


2. respondeatur


3. oblata essent


4. amissae sitis


5. praestaremus


6. contulerimus


7. exponereris


8. malemus


9. discessisses


10. voluisse


II. Circle the proper subjunctive form for each sentence. (10 pts.)

1. Tam acerbus erit ut nemo eum amare (possit, posset, potuisset).

2. Stulti rogabant quae bona umquam sapientia (ferat, tulerit, tulisset).

3. Haec cupiverunt ut vitam feliciorem (agant, agerent, egerint).

4. Orator cognoverat unde (venias, veneras, venisses).

5. Dic mihi cur (discedetis, discederetis, discesseritis).

III. Complete the chart by filling in the missing adverbs. (10 pts.)







IV. Translate the following sentences into reasonable English which reflects the syntax of the Latin sentence. Answer the grammar questions appended. (50 pts.)

1. Scelus eius tantum fuerat ut ab amicis nec diligeretur nec cognosceretur.



What case is amicis and why? ________________________________________________
What mood is cognosceretur and why? ________________________________________________
What tense is cognosceretur and why? ________________________________________________

2.In exsilium se conferant ut otium nobis dent.


What mood is conferant and why? __________________________________________________
What case is nobis and why? __________________________________________________
What mood is dent and why? __________________________________________________
What tense is dent and why? __________________________________________________

3. Cum divitias omnes celerrimê amitteret, tamen felix erat et diutius vixit.



What degree of what form is celerrimê? ______________________________________________
What mood is amitteret and why? ______________________________________________
What case is felix and why? ______________________________________________
What degree of what form is diutius? ______________________________________________

4 . Nolint discipuli rogare utrum ("whether") sententiae quas scribemus sint difficiliores aut longiores!



What mood is Nolint and why? ______________________________________________
What mood is rogare and why? ______________________________________________
What mood is sint and why? ______________________________________________
What degree of what form is longiores? ______________________________________________



I.   1. I was not wishing, I did not wish
6. we will have gathered OR (S) we have gathered
  (S) 2. it is answered
7. you were exposed
  (S) 3. they (neut.) had been offered
8. we will prefer
  (S) 4. you (f. pl.) were/have been lost
9. you had departed
  (S) 5. we exhibited
10. to have wished

1. possit (result, contemporaneous action in primary sequence)
2. tulisset (indirect question, prior action in secondary sequence)
3. agerent (purpose, contemporaneous action in secondary sequence)
4. venisses (indirect question, prior action in secondary sequence)
5. discesseritis (indirect question, prior action in primary sequence)


IV. 1. His crime had been so great that he was neither honored nor acknowledged by (his) friends.
amicis: ablative of personal agent
cognosceretur (mood): subjunctive, result clause
cognosceretur (tense): imperfect, contemporaneous action in secondary sequence

2. Let them go (literally "bear themselves") into exile in order to give us peace.
conferant: subjunctive, jussive
nobis: dative, indirect object
dent (mood): subjunctive, purpose clause
dent (tense): present, contemporaneous action in primary sequence

3. Although he lost all (his) money very quickly, nevertheless he was happy and lived rather long.
celerrimê: superlative adverb
amitteret: subjunctive in a cum clause
felix: nominative, predicate adjective
diutius: comparative adverb

4. Let the students be unwilling to ask whether the sentences which we will write are too difficult or too long!
Nolint: subjunctive, jussive
rogare: infinitive, complementary with nolo
sint: subjunctive, indirect question
longiores: comparative adjective


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